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1EEQS TIMES, VKWAY. 'JAmiKKY 15, 1897: 

Stained Glass as an Art (Macmillan). x 
For an artist to confide to the public the 
motives and methods of his work is a somewhat 
unusual occurrence, but when he is a man of 
originality like Mr. Henry Holiday, and has for 
years followed his own path without turning 
aside to seek for popularity, such an apologia is 
welcome, and the more so that its personal cha- 
racter is a happy accident due not to the author's 
self-conceit but to his modesty. For the book is, 
as it professes to be, an essay on the art of 
stained glass ; but as such it needed illustrations, 
and these Mr. Holiday found he could only take 
from his own work, for there only could he 
speak with confidence of the objects aimed 
at, or of the means adopted to attain them. 
Any other course would ha\'e involved adverse 
.criticism and possible misinterpretation of the 
work of fellow-artists. The purpose of this essay 
is to draw attention to the vast difl'erence that 
exists between the mere mechanical reproduction 
of the styles and tricksof medieval glasspainters, 
lifeless iterations of thoughts long dead, and the 
original work of a true artist, with ideas and 
sentiments of his own which are neoessariljr 
reflected in his work, and to bring out the im- 
portance to the craft of glass painting of its 
being regarded as an art, not as a trade. It is 
the application to glass painting of the spirit 
which has produced the Arts and Crafts Exhi- 
bition. Far too much of the modern glass has 
been designed by clerks working in any 
style required, and in that style merely re- 
producing the mannerisms of the original 
draughtsmen. The fault has not been peculiar 
to glass painting, it may be seen in all depart- 
ments of ecclesiastical architectm-e, and was 
perhaps an inevitable result of the Gothic re- 
vival. Now, however, that we have seen the 
effect of this formal imitation of ancient work, 
and have discovered that a dead copy of a 13th 
century church is no more interesting than an 
Italian villa constructed according to the rules of 
Vitruvius, there has been for some time past an 
effort on the part of architects and craftsmen to 
infuse a modern spirit into their work, and to re- 
garel the ancient buildings as examples to be 
studied as the basis only of their modem work. 
And the present volume is likely to be naefnl in 
educating public opinion, and so bringing about 
a greater sympathy between artists and their 
clients. For an appreciative public opiuionis 
almost a necessary condition of the production 
of works of art. 

With most of Mr. Holiday's views probably 
few artists would disagree. He points out that 
the principal beauty of glass is due to its 
brilliance, and that therefore this quality should 
be the guiding principle in its treatment. 
I Shadows and lines other than these necessary to 
define the forms should be introduced mainly 
! with the object of enhancing the apparent bright- 
ness of the lighter parts, and so increasing the 
I beauty of the glass. No attempt at realism 
should be made, since this is bound to result in 
failure. The heavy leads and the sharp contrasts 
of colour between adjoining pieces of glass are 
like nothing in nature, and if chiaroscuro is 
introduced it involves large masses of heavy 
shadow which are clearly inappropriate to a 
window intended to admit light. Besides, every 
(passing cloud will alter the illumination, 
I so that the picture can only be properly 
I seen against a uniform sky. The true prin- 
1 ciple is to keep the subject (as in a bas- 
[ relief) as nearly as possible upon one plane, 
to group the figures for decorative rather than 
pictorial effect, and to shade each object sepa- 
; rately so as to bringout its form without 

atteillptlhg to work out the relative lights and 
shadows as they would appear in actual fact or 
in an oil painting. But subject to these restric- 
tions the drawing should be made as perfect as 
possible, as any copying of Gothic errors of 
anatomy would be an obvious anachronism. The 
composition should be inspired by modem ideas, 
and the style should be such as results from the 
natural expression of the artist's thoughts and 

So far we may all agree with Mr. Holiday, 
but perhaps the most interesting feature in the 
book is an omission which goes far to explain 
why ■ liis glass, with all its beauty of form 
and colour and sentiment, still often fails 
to please. " Beginning with design," he writes, 
" the first all- important consideration for the 
glass-painter to keep in mind is that he has to 
decorate a window." This is his second duty ; 
his first (so strangely overlooked) is to decorate 
the building. When glass-painting was a living 
art, the window was regarded as part of the wall 
and was ornamented in the same sort of way as a 
piece of wall might have been ornamented, the 
only difference being that the one was trans- 
parent, the other opaque. In early times the 
entire window was filled with a geometrical 
pattern enclosing figure subjects in a series of 
circles or quatrefoils. Later the figures stood 
alone, absolutely without background, or they 
were enclosed in elaborate architectural 
compositions. And the drawing is gene- 
rally restful and sculpturesque. The eye 
passes naturally from wall to window and 
on again to wall without being necessarily ar- 
rested by the glass. Indeed, the best glass is 
perhaps the least conspicuous. But Mr. Holiday's 
glass asserts itself at once as something apart 
from the building. His couplet in Salisbury 
Cathedral is beautiful, but it is not an ornament 
to the building. You may look at the glass and 
enjoy it, j'ou may look at the architecture and 
admire that ; but there is no pleasure to be got 
from looking at the architecture and glass at the 
same time. And the same is true of the west 
window of St. Saviour's, Southwark. Vaguely, 
it is clear, Mr. Holiday feels this, for he dwells 
at length on the necessity of every artist being 
true to his own style, urging that different styles, 
so long as they are honest, always harmonize 
together, while to copy the pre-existing style 
of the building always results in failure. 
Though there is much truth in this it is 
not the whole truth._ The nase oi We^ 
minster Abbey is a copy of the choir and a 1 
splendid success, while the mixture of Norman 
and Decorated work in the nave of St. Albans is | 
almost grotesque. The truth seems to be that 
the artist should think lirst of the building aud 
only secondly of his own art. The real trouble, 
however, comes from the fact that Mr. Holiday's 
style is not architectural. The rounded forms 
and rapid motion in which he delights require a 
strong setting of architectural or at least geo- 
metrical borders to make them harmonize ivith 
the rigid lines of a stone building, and such 
borders he rarely introduces. But the plates at 
the end of the volume show how the most modem 
glass may be given the true architectural 
character. Mr. Richmond's windows at St. 
taul's are comparatively siaiple esamples, since 
they consist almost wholly of geometrical orna- 
ment, but Sir Edward Burne-Jones's Birming- 
ham windows are masterpieces of design. The 
subjects occupy the entire space : but the verti- 
cal and horizontal lines are so strongly marked, 
the figures so stiiHy yet grandly drawn, that the 
composition looks almost as if it would stand by 
itself, and needs no adventitious aids to make it 
harmonize with the surrounding architecture. 




1 11^ 

Stained Glass as an c^rt 










All rii(kts. reserved 




THIS essay will, it may be hoped, sufficiently 
explain itself without introductory remarks, 
but a few words are wanted about the 

In the first place I desire to express my sincere 
and cordial thanks to my friends Sir Edward Burne- 
Jones and Mr. William Blake Richmond, for their 
courtesy in allowing me to reproduce some of their 
designs, and thus to give specimens of the best work 
in stained glass of the nineteenth century. In the 
next place I must explain why the direct illustrations 
of my text are taken from my own work only. 

Considerations of convenience and of good taste 
determined me to take this course. I am quite 
convinced of a general accord between my brother 
artists and myself as to the main principles laid 
down in this treatise, but it is more than probable 
that we may differ on minor points j and I might 
find myself quoting some features in their designs 
in illustration of an argument of my own, with which 
they might not wholly agree j I might read some- 
thing into their work which was not really in their 

VI Vreface 

On the other hand, there are some Iq-w matters 
about which we do not absolutely agree, and by 
employing my friends' designs in direct illustration 
of my principles, I might appear to be guilty of an 
inconsistency, miless I adopted the objectionable 
alternative of calling attention to the points in 
question for the purpose of adverse criticism. 

But the consideration of convenience alone would 
almost have compelled me to make the decision. 
Obviously my own designs, whatever their demerits, 
express my own ideas, and will accord with my text, 
for the illustration of which alone they are intro- 
duced j and they were all at hand. If I wanted an 
example of any point, 1 knew where to find it, and 
could get the drawing out and have it photographed. 
As I proceeded with my work, I found any other 
course would have been impracticable. 

Of my friends' designs let me say that if they 
indicate any views slightly differing from my own, 
the difference is not such as to affect my admiration 
of them. I have selected them as instances of 
beautiful design and workmanship, and as such I 
commend them to my readers if they desire to see 
to how high a level the beauty of stained glass 
can reach. 


Oak-tree House, 
Branch Hill, 


Dec. 185)^. 



Introductory ...... i 

Attitude of the average amateur towards Stained Glass, p. i ; 
his general uncertainty on the subject ; his belief that stained 
glass should be rather mediaeval, 2 ; prevailing conditions adverse 
to the Technical Arts ; element of manufacture and profit ; 
revival of stained glass under trade auspices, 3 ; the artist 
omitted ; the cheap and nasty ; consequent general desecration 
of churches ; the amateur left without any artistic standard ; 
nearly all commercial stained glass designed by unknown 
employes, 4 ; with a few exceptions commercial stained glass 
merely kept up to the average public taste ; pictures good and 
bad the work of the artists ; employes of stiiined glass firms all 
trained to a business standard, 5 ; this essay intended to remove 
some of the amateur's difficulties, 6. 

Material and Technique .... 

(a) Material ; colour of glass ; flashed glass, p. 7 ; excellence 
of modern coloured glass ; streaky pot, 8 ; yellow stain ; enamel 
colours; lead, 9 ; iron; shading pigment, 10 ; (^) Technique ; 
stained glass without lines and shadows lacks dignity and 
interest, 1 1 ; difference between art proper and a technical art ; 
occasion offered by northern civilization for stained glass 
windows; antiquity of stained glass, 12; splendid colour the 
most striking characteristic of stained glass ; unfit for repre- 
senting natural effects, 1 3 ; perversity of modem decorator in 
seeking the unfit ; hopelessness of imitating the subtle effects of 

viii Contents 

nature with pieces of coloured glass and lead, 1 4 ; ineffective- 
ness of such imitation if it were possible; mistake of using wide 
range of light and dark in glass for the imitation of natural 
chiaroscuro, 15; failure of an attempt to obtain a better imita- 
tion of nature in glass by elimination of leads, 1 6 ; fatal defects 
of the method, 1 7 ; necessity of showing that realism is im- 
possible in glass before opening inquiry into technique, 1 9 ; 
(f) Description of Processes ; the design ; figure studies ; 
cartoons, 19; selection of glass, 20; cut-line drawing; cutting 
the glass ; outlines ; first fire, 2 1 ; setting out the glass for the 
painter; shading, 22 ; methods of shading ; the ' matt ' method, 
23; second fire; second shading; third fire; corrections and 
yellow stain, 24; stipple-shading; glazing; cementing, 25; 
binding; recapitulation, 26; eighteen processes generally required 
for any piece of stained glass, 27. 


Artistic Possibilities inherent in Stained 
Glass from the point of view of 
Technique ...... 

Form ; unlimited capacities of glass for expression of form ; 
consequent absurdity of deliberate inaccuracy in drawing the 
figure, p. 2 8 ; form at least as impoitant as colour in glass ; 
study of Chartres Window; geometrical iron-work, 29; ad- 
mirable design of window as a whole : in detail ; action of 
the figures clearly shown through draperies, 30 ; necessity of 
emphasising the essential rather than the accidental forms ; 
analogy between Stained Glass and Bas-relief; colour in both 
purely decorative, not imitative ; importance of form conse- 
quently enhanced in both, 31 ; consequent necessity of insisting 
on the noblest forms ; this principle observed in the thirteenth 
century, 3 3 ; contrast between this and sham thirteenth-century 
glass produced by trade ; form indispensable in glass ; colour 
may be omitted ; treatment of form in glass, 3 5 ; two great 


Contents ix 

Chapter i. 
Design . , . . 

First duty of glass-painter to decorate a window, not to ignore 
its architectural forms ; rapid decadence of stained glass in 
cinque-cento due to neglect of this principle, p. 45 ; cinque- 
cento glass at King's College, Cambridge, splendid work, but 
showing early stage of the disease; treatment of wide-open 
space without mullions ; strong iron-work necessary ; desirability 
of emphasising this by leading lines in design, 46 ; examples 
of design founded on iron-work, 47 ; example of window 
divided into subjects by iron-work, 49 ; example of subject 
framed in iron-work with border, 50; special treatment of iron- 
work in large circular window — 'Theology'; analysis of treat- 
ment, 51 ; Theology and Science, 53 ; advantage of decorative 


princiijles; distinctive character of material and situation and 
purpose of work ; transparency distinctive character of glass ; 
increase of brilliancy by use of lines and shadows ; different 
treatment of light and dark glass, 36 ; black lines on light glass 
in early glass omitted later in favour of delicate films of shadow; 
advantage of matt in light glass and stipple in deep colours, 
38 ; Venetian window in Duomo at Florence ; few lines and 
transparent shadows ; great beauty and brilliancy of windows 
from Florence and Chartres, with no attempt to imiuite nature, 
39; use of diapers for giving texture and glitter to glass, 40 ; 
use of flashed glass bitten and stained ; ' plating ' to obtain 
different colours, 41. 


The Artistic Possibilities of Stained Glass, 
considered in relation to the situa- 
TION AND Purpose of the Work . . 43 


X Contents 

over pictorial art in presentation of 'Ideas,' 54; treatment of 
windows with muUions; limitations in decorative art as in poetry 
supply motives, 5 5 ; design for several lights must be divided 
and related as the architecture is divided and related ; examples 
of simplest kind of division, 56; in such cases harmony of colour 
more exacting than that of form ; colour in complicated windows 
of early periods very symmetrical, 57 ; treatment of lights of 
different heights; one subject extending over two or more lights, 
59 ; example of subject in two lights ; the mullion must not 
be felt to be an interruption, 60 ; extreme case of carrying 
a feature in a design across three lights, 61 ; example in five 
lights, with two subjects and a single figure ; complicated 
example of one subject in ten lights, 62 ; tracery, 64 ; case 
of one theme divided into many subjects, extending over seven 
lights, 65; analysis of design, 66; impossibility of considering 
composition apart from its motive ; desirability where there are 
many figures of having more than one scale, and preferably not 
more than two, 67 ; importance of knitting long series together 
with horizontal features ; distinction between centre and side 
lights, 68 ; colour in this window ; distinction between upper, 
lower, and middle bands, and between centre and sides ; pre- 
valence of primary colours in upper band ; of quieter colours 
in lower band, disposed with approximate symmetry, 69; beauty 
of blue glass ; difficulty of treating blue ; example with important 
tracery ; small precis of design to show the motive of the leading 
lines, 70 ; pointing to the dominant idea, ' Peace on earth, 
goodwill toward men ' ; slowness of mankind to learn this 
lesson, politically, 7 1 ; or socially ; signs that a better spirin is 
growing up and will prevail, 72; growing horror at the wicked- 
ness of war ; earnest desire to find a better foundation for our 
industrial system, than selfish personal gain, 73 ; the tmest art 
cannot be separated from the best aspirations of man, 74. 

Chapter 2. 
Light and Shade . . . . . • 7S 

Light and shade may enhance the interest of details, or the 
decorative beauty of the whole ; these two considerations must 

Contents xi 


always go together, p. 75 ; light and shade as means of 
expressing modelling ; possibilities of light and shade unlimited 
in glass ; but limits to their use very important ; extreme degrees 
of liglit and shade seldom sought by painters, 76 ; plausible 
contention that capacity for depth without blackness should be 
utilized for effects of chiaroscuro ; objection that this would lead 
to false expectation and put spectator on wrong track, 77 ; where 
then is the line to be drawn ? a principle wanted, not an 
arbitrary line ; suggestion of natural forms by light and shade 
inevitable ; absolute importance of treating these to enhance 
decorative beauty of the glass ; unimportance of the amount of 
light and shade if this principle be observed, 78 ; no realism 
in any form of early art ; incipient realism in glass of fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries ; fine examples in New College, Oxford, 
79 ; vulgar realism in the same chapel ; Sir Joshua Reynolds's 
window in the same chapel ; curious instance of refined design 
with wholly false aim, 80 ; proof of total decay of decorative 
sense ; sufficiency of the above principle for an artist ; necessity 
of further definition for an outsider ; distinction between decora- 
tive and pictorial light and shade, 81 ; analogy between stained 
glass and bas-relief in light and shade ; both deal with a single 
plane ; beauty of modelling possible in both with very simple 
light and shade, 82 ; Panathenaic frieze from the Parthenon ; 
perfection of execution in detail, and of decorative beauty, 83 ; 
different planes implied, not represented ; possibility of great 
freedom of treatment when the principle is well grasped ; 
examples of strict adherence to the precept, 84; west window, 
St. Saviour's, 86 ; Cavendish Window, St. Margaret's, West- 
minster, 88 ; Wordsworth window, Rydal ; examples of freer 
treatment, 90 ; suggestion without realization ; symbolic use of 
familiar effects ; security from error found in single-minded aim, 
92 ; assimilation of principle an emancipation ; rales a bondage ; 
example of symbolic accordance with nature, 93 ; pool of 
Bethesda, Romsey Abbey, 94; 'Charity,' Philadelphia, 95; 
Paul at Athens, Forfar ; treatment of perspective ; Marriage at 
Cana, South Audley Street, 97 ; necessity of the same freedom 
about light and shade as about colour and perspective ; treat- 
ment of light and shade at various periods ; simplicity retained 
in glass when chiaroscuro was fully developed in pictorial art. 

xii Contents 

98 ; Fairford glass ; Lichfield ; considerable degree of 
naturalism with true decorative feeling, 99 ; general conclusion 
about light and shade, 1 00 ; expression of tone by deeper 
colour of glass, lOl. 

Chapter 3. 
Style . . . . . . . .102 

Mediasvalism ; the Gothic revival, p. 1 02 ; good intention of the 
revivalists ; tasteless development of the revival ; first resultant 
crime ; wholesale destructive ' restorations ' ; probable view of 
medijevalists as regards glass ; trade conception of nditieti in 
art, 103; difficulty of abolishing an ingrained superstition; 
quaintness of early glass genuine ; all early artists gave their 
own best; impossibility of any other course to an artist, 104; 
production by trade of that for which there is a market ; 
absurdity of attempting to imitate a noble ait by training 
apprentices to a few tricks of trade ; appalling rubbish in the 
cathedrals supplied by trade, 105 ; the tricks better done now ; 
comicalities of sham medieval glass, 106; calamitous effect 
of this ignorance increased by durability of material ; difficulty 
of removing stained glass, however disgraceful ; systematic dis- 
figurement of cathedrals, 1 07 ; mimiciy of old work, no ait 
at all ; paying to be tricked ; ' look as good as old ' ; violins and 
stained glass, 1 08 ; exceptions to the general rule about com- 
mercial glass ; responsibility of educated public for the evil, 109 ; 
ceaseless demand of educated public for shop-art ; division of 
labour in commercial art incompatible with real ait, 1 1 o ; a 
panel of stained glass in a commercial house done in fragments 
by different employes ; consequent lack of interest to all, 1 1 1. 

Style, Architectural . . . .112 

True influence of style of building upon style of deco- 
ration ; false influence ; abnegation by artist of his own style 
and temporary adoption of some obsolete style ; immorality 
of such hollow pretence ; impossibility of actual temporary 
adoption of a style ; impossibility to an artist of working in 

Contents xiii 


any style but his own, p. 113; adaptation of design, not change 
of style, true solution ; dancing among half a dozen styles 
only known to the trade ; universal practice of great artists 
to work in their own style ; mediaeval and Renaissance Italy, 
114; a nightmare ! same rale holds good to-day ; permanence 
of personal predilections of particular artists, 115; difficulty 
of giving rales for adaptation of design to spaces, 116. 

Style in relation to Ornament . . 117 

Style in ornament, p. 117; complexity of problem ; difference 
of point of view between painting and architecture, 118; impos- 
sibility of arguing from architecture to figures ; question as to 
whether ornament should ally itself with the architecture or the 
figures in a window, 119; natural tendency to associate parts of 
window with each other rather than with stonework ; incon- 
gruity of mixed styles in one window ; example of this ; 
ancient practice ; genuineness of each man's own style, irre- 
spective of style of building ; maintenance of rule even in archi- 
tectural additions, 1 20; general conclusions about ornament, 
121; derivation of ornament from natural forms ; foliage ; 
ornamental treatment of foliage at different periods ; application 
of same rule to ornament as to figures, 122; adaptation of 
design not changing of style, 123 ; decline of decorative sense 
in late civilizations ; prevalence of ornamental treatment even in 
pictorial work of early times ; tendency of late ornament to 
become realistic ; Raphael's arabesques ; nineteenth-century 
ornament before Morris, 124; depth of its vulgarity, 125; 
tendency to resuscitate old forms at times of revival, 126; 
development of characteristic style not lapid ; gradual appearance 
of such style at present time ; foliage in early Italian ornament, 
127; Ducal Palace, Venice; Duomo, Florence; examples 
of similar ornament in glass, 128. 

Style IN RELATION TO Archeology . .130 

Costume, &c., in stained glass ; custom in early work of repre- 
senting all people in costume of artist's own time ; impossibility 
of representing men in battered black tubes in stained glass, 

xiv Contents 


p. 1 30; affectation of such practice in a society familiar with the 
costumes of the past ; desirableness of presenting our subjects 
as we naturally conceive them ; traditional treatment of Christ 
and apostles at nearly all periods. 131 ; folly of rejecting cha- 
racteristic costume where it would add to the interest and 
decorative beauty of work ; examples of ' local colour ' in 
costume, &c., from stained glass windows, 133; latitude 
necessary here as in other matters, 134. 

Style in relation to a few Special Points 136 

The human figure, p. 136; the figure not often represented in 
early art ; but not avoided in glass where opportunity offered ; 
Chartres ; Fairford, 1 37; considerations of colour and surface; 
no technical difficulty in treating the figure in glass ; examples 
— Lazarus, 139; Enoch, Moses, and Elijah ; representation of 
textures in glass, 14O; Angels; their representation necessarily 
symbolic ; mediaeval angels in ecclesiastical vestments ; objec- 
tions to maintenance of this practice, 141; absurdity of drawing 
angels who existed before the Creation in costume only invented 
5,000 years after it ; anthropomorphism exceeded ; necessity 
of representing celestial beings in exalted human form, 1 42 ; 
extension of this to highly specialized costumes, a narrow and 
unelevating symbolism ; incongruity of wings and heavy gar- 
ments; Orgagna and Van Eyck, 143; ecclesiastically clothed 
angels soon dropped by the great painters ; development of 
spiritual functions in the human organs, and gradual subordination 
of the animal functions ; consummation of the process, 1 44 ; 
answer to possible objection to this view ; Blake's angels, 1 45 ; 
examples, 1 46. 

Chapter 4. 

The Influence of Limitations of Form and 

Space on Decorative Art . . .147 

Picture regarded as actual scene contemplated through an 
opening ; aichitectural spaces not regarded in this way; decora- 
tive art accepted as symbolic, and thus liberated from the 

Contents xv 


trammels of realism, p. 147 ; analogy between limitations 
of decorative ait and those of rhythm and metre, 1 48 ; 
Ruskin's diagram ; underlying harmony producing resultant 
confusion ; similar contrast presented by the world ; rhythm in 
motion, 1 49 ; universal law of matter acted on by different 
forces, 1 50 ; regular and irregular rhythm ; deep, regular 
rhythm makes musical tones ; superficial, irregular rhythm 
makes noise ; profound thoughts need to be in accord with 
profound, regular, musical rhythm ; consequent spirituality of 
music, 151; same laws in all arts ; rhythm in architecture ; 
stained glass should belong to this higher order, 152. 

Conclusion . . . . . . • i5'3 

Stained glass as an art ; how to learn lessons from the past and 
apply them to the present, p. 153; symbolism ; use of tra- 
ditional symbols as labels, not as substitutes for imagination, 
154; all good work is modern; nobility and individuality of 
stained glass as an artistic material, 157; perils which have 
beset stained glass ; only means of saving it, the education of 
the public, 158. 

Note I. American Glass . . . .15-9 
Note II. Opus Sectile (Opaque Stained Glass) \6\ 

Designs by Sir Edward Burne-Jones and 

Mr. W. B. Richmond, R.A. . . \6-j 

INDEX 171 



Frontispiece. Reproduction in colour of the seven Chancel 
windows in Grace Church, Utica. Subject : ' Let the 
Heavens rejoice, and let the Earth be glad.' 
Initial Letters . . pp. i, 7, i8, 4.3, 45-, 75-, 102, 147, 153 
Fig. I. Grooved lead ....... 9 

X. Window in South Aisle of Chartres Cathedral . To face p. 50 
3. Portion of ditto, larger scale . . . . . 32 


6. Thirteenth-century head, showing thick outlines 




7. Window from Transept of Duomo, Florence . To face p. 39 



8. Various diapers ...... 

(). Window in Church, Philadelphia. ' Charity ^ ' 

10. Window in South Aisle, Salisbury Cathedra 

' Christ receiving Children ' . . . 

11. Window in Christ Church, New York. 'Love' 
1%. Window in Hospital, Toronto, Canada. 'Christ 

healing sick child ' . 

13. Window in Theological College, New Jersey 

' Theology '......, 

14. Window in Bingley Church, Yorkshire. ' Faith and 

Hope' . . . . . 
If. East window in Bingley Church, Yorkshire. ' Five 

Virtues' ....... 

16. Window in Church, Portland, Maine, U.S. A 

'Virgin Mary, St. Cecilia, St. Agnes, with 



Angels ' 

' Where not otherwise stated the windows illustrated are from designs by 
the author. 


xviii List of Illustrations 


Fig. 17. Part of window in Churcli of tlie Incarnation, New 

York. 'Jacob blessing liis children ' . . 5:5 

18. Window in Ormskirk Church, Lancashire. 'Christ 

stilling the tempest ' . . . . . . 60 

i^. East window in chapel of a school near Phila- 
delphia. 'Joseph and his brethren ' . . 61 

lo. Lower part of East window, Upholland Church, 

near Wigan. ' The Ascension ' . To face p. 61 

ai. 'The Ascension,' by Giotto. Arena Chapel, 

Padua ........ ()3 

22. Part of tracery fiom East window in Upholland 

Church ........ 6'4. 

25. East window in Church of the Epiphany, Wash- 
ington, U. S. A. ' The Nativity, with the 
adoration of kings and shepherds'. To face f. 70 

24.. Precis of the above . . . . . . 71 

2^. Two slabs from the Panathenaic frieze round the 

cella of the Parthenon, Athens . . . 8j 

iG. West window in St. Saviour's, Southwark. ' The 

Creation' To face p. %^ 

27. Panels from the above, larger scale . . . 8f 

28. Cartoons for part of the Cavendish Memorial 

window in St. Margaret's, Westminster. ' The 
Passion' To face p. %6 

29. From coloured sketch for the above . . . 87 

30. Cartoon for part of the East window in Church of 

the Epiphany (Fig. 23) 89 

31. Window in Rydal Church in memory of Jemima 

Quillinan ....... 91 

32. Window in Romsey Abbey. 'The Pool at 

Bethesda '..... To face p. p^ 

33. Window in Church at Philadelphia (see Fig. 9). 

'Charity' To face p. i^'^ 

34.. Part of window in Forfar Church. 'Paul preaching 

at Athens ' <)6 

3^. Window in American Church, Geneva. 'Ascending 

Saint' ICO 

List of Illustrations xix 


Fig. 3(). Study for angel in tracery of Cburch in Brooklyn, 

U.S.A ii6 

•37. Foliated ornament. Egyptian, Assyrian, and Greek 1x3 
58. Arabesques by Raphael in the Loggie at the 

Vatican . . . . . . . . ii^ 

39. Capital and group in Ducal Palace, Venice . . ix6 

^oa. Grisaille from window in Forfar Church (see Fig. 34) 1 17 

+0^. „ „ „ „ iz8 

4.1. Grisaille from window in Salisbury Cathedral (see 

Fig. 10) 119 

4z. Panels with 'Joseph and his brethren,' Phila- 
delphia (see Fig. 15)) 131 

43. Window in St. Paul's, Richmond, U.S.A. 'Moses 

leaving the court of Pharaoh ' . Jo face p. iii\. 

44. Window in Church of Holy Trinity, Philadelphia. 

' Paul preacliing at Athens ' . . . . 135- 
4^. Panels from window in Grace Church, New York. 

'Raising of Lazarus' . . . . .138 
4'). Part of East window in Evesham Church. ' Enoch, 

Moses, and EUjah' . . . To face p. 140 

47. Panel from window in Tamworth Church. 'Sam- 

son at Gaza' . . . . . . . i3<) 

48. Angels by Andrea Orgagna, Campo Santo, Pisa . 143 

49. Angel by Van Eyck ...... 143 

5'0. From William Blake's ' Book of Job' . . . 1^ 
^i. From East window in Christ Church, Brooklyn, 

U.S.A. 'Angels from Jacob's Ladder' To face p. 1^6 
^1. Window in Muncaster Church, To follow Yig. 5-1. 
53. From Ruskin's Modern Painters . Drawing of 

Tree by the Clerk of the Works . . .148 
^4. East windows in the Mall Church, Notting Hill. 

' Life, Death, and Resurrection ' . . . 15-^ 
^5-. East window in Church of St. Luke's Hospital, 

New York. ' Christ the Consoler ' and ' Seven 

Acts of Mercy ' . . . .To follow p. i <;6 
57^. From coloured sketch for the above. To follow Fig. fj. 
')6. Nude studies for the above . . . . .1^6 

XX List of Illustrations 


Fig. ^7. Drapery study for figure from the above . . 15' 7 

5:8. ' Angel of Judgment,' executed in Opus sectile . 166 
fc). The Nativity. From the cartoon by Sir Edward 
Burne-Jones for a Chancel window at St. Philip's, 
Birmingham ..... To face p. \6% 

60. The Ascension. From the same cartoon by Sir 

Edward Burne-Jones. To follow Fig. 55). 

61. The Crucifixion. From the same cartoon by 

Sir Edward Burne-Jones. To follow Fig. 6^0. 

61. Eastwindows of St. Philip' s,Birmingham. Executed 
by William Morris & Co. from the designs of 
Sir Edward Burne-Jones. From photographs 
taken from the glass expressly for this work. 
To follow Fig. ^i. 

6-ij. Angels. From a window in St. Paul's Cathedral, 

designed by W. B. Richmond, R.A. To face f. 170 

6+. „ „ „ „ To follow Yig. 61.. 



LARGE number of persons in Attitude of 

every civilized community fre- ^^^ average 

\. ■ ^ II • J amateur 

quent picture galleries, and ^^^^,^^ 

most of these claim to under- stained 
stand something about the art Glass. 
of painting. Some make the 
claim justly j they may not be 
productive artists, but they 
have the receptive faculty. 
Possessing powers of observa- 
tion and using them, they have a keen eye for truth- 
ful presentations of nature, whether as regards form 
or colour, action or expression. Others pay little 
attention to nature, and passing unnoticed most of 
the more subtle and delicate beauties she presents to 
them daily, bestow their admiration chiefly on scenes 
which impress them from their novelty : an excep- 
tional sunset, the sun breaking out after a storm, 
an imposing piece of mountain scenery, &c. These 
will be most attracted in an exhibition by clever 
imitations of the more cheap and obvious effects. 

If their powers of thought have been generally 
cultivated, they will be aware that no faculty can 


2 Stained Glass as an o^rt 

be matured without study and practice, and they 
very commonly disclaim any special right to pro- 
nounce opinions or pass judgments on works of art. 
All the same, they have opinions, and in their secret 
hearts they consider these opinions very sound, and 
probably they would be much more worth hearing 
than the 'esthetic' jargon of the would-be critic 
who used to talk about 'chiar'oscuro' and ' impasto,' 
and now talks about ' values ' and ' relations.' 

An artist ought to meet respectfully those who 
modestly define their position in the familiar words, 
* I don't profess to understand art, but / know what 
I like? 
Hisgeneral As regards stained glass, very few have arrived 
uncertainty eyg^ at this unpretending stage. Very few know 
subied: ^^'^'^ what they like, or if they have preferences they 
could give only a very vague account of the meaning 
of those preferences. All would agree in condemning 
the garish performances of certain tradesmen who, in 
the earlier part of this century, defiled nearly all our 
cathedrals with their stained glass \ but if they find 
in a window tolerably good taste as to colour, and 
fairly good drawing, they hardly know what more 
to look for. If it were a picture they could appeal 
to nature as their standard of comparison, but that 
is out of the question here, and they are at a loss 
how to prove that one window is better than 
His belief The case is further complicated by the prevailing 
thatstained vague impression that stained glass should be rather 
glass should j-nediajval. How mediaeval it should be, or why it 
medisval. should be mediaeval at all, or which of the totally 
dissimilar mediaeval styles it should resemble, is not 
clear, but that it should be mediaeval in some un- 
defined way is a popular belief. Little wonder then 

Introductory i 

that the amateur feels no firm ground under his feet 
when approaching the subject of stained glass. 

The following pages are addressed mainly to 
those who have cultivated their perceptive faculties 
generally, but find themselves thus bewildered by 
uncertainty as to the essential factors determining 
the nature of the particular art here discussed. 

There is no royal road to anything worth having, 
and those in whom the sense of beauty has been 
undeveloped, will gain nothing by reading a treatise, 
but it often happens that where technical arts are 
concerned, many whose sense of beauty is by no 
means dormant, find the free exercise of that sense 
impeded by lack of knowledge concerning the 
materials employed, and by misapprehensions arising 
fi-om the unfortunate conditions by which in the 
present day all technical arts are heavily handicapped 
— none more so than stained glass. 

The nature of these adverse conditions need only Prevailing 
be briefly referred to. In a picture, a poem, or conditions 
a musical score, the conception and its development (.[^^ Tech- 
are the work of one man, but in the technical arts, nical Arts. 
mosaic, tapestry, metal work, carving of wood and 
stone, and other crafts, the element of manufacture Element 
enters; furnaces, looms, &c., and workmen are wanted, of^anu- 
There is an opening for the investment of capital pj.Qgt_ 
and the running of a ' concern.' Profit begins to peer 
in with his greedy eyes, and when Profit comes in at 
the door, Art flies out at the window. 

Thus when stained glass was revived with the Revival 
Gothic movement early in the century, it was taken oj" stained 
up as a trade. The first crude idea of the Gothic ^^^^g 
revivalists was that a Gothic church must have auspices. 
Gothic figures, and thus for Gothic figures there 
was a large demand. Art could not meet so absurd 

B 1. 

Stained Glass as an c^Trt 

The artist 

The cheap 
and nasty. 

of churches. 

left without 
any artistic 

all com- 
glass de- 
signed by 

a requirement, because an artist only draws figures 
as he knows and feels them, not as someone else 
felt them five or six centuries ago, but this gave 
rise to no difiSculty. Trade rushed in where artists 
scorned to tread, and the supply was soon equal to 
the demand. As the artist was dispensed with there 
is little doubt that the stuff supplied was cheap ; 
there is none that it was nasty. In the whole black 
list of offences for which trade is responsible there is 
probably nothing which for its enduring odiousness 
can compare with the sacrilegious desecration of our 
noblest buildings unblushingiy carried on for money- 
profit through a considerable part of this century. 

The subject will have to be touched upon again 
at a later part of our inquiry, but it was necessary 
to say thus much here to assist us in rightly under- 
standing the difficulty which besets the amateur in 
forming any standard in his mind which he can 
apply to stained glass : for though matters have 
greatly improved, the fundamental evil still remains. 
Growth of public taste compelled the more prominent 
firms to seek the help of artists in their more im- 
portant works, and some of the firms established in 
more recent times contain among their members men 
of artistic ability, but the bulk of the work done 
by all the commercial stained glass manufacturers is 
designed by unknown employes who have been unable 
to make a position as original artists, and it is done 
to order in a prescribed style. 

The prescribed style of the earlier period was 
intolerable. Under the more exacting demands of 
an improved public taste the prescribed style of 
to-day is ' tolerable — but not to be endured.' 

For it is still trade and not art. Now and then 
an artist is called in and given a free hand, and 

Introductory y 

a genuine work of art is produced j but such cases 
are exceptions, and the bulk (probably ninety-nine 
hundredths) of the stained glass which now fills our 
churches is produced for profit ^ like any other manu- 
facture. Where then can the inquiring amateur 
arrive at an artistic standard with reference to With a 
stained glass? He can find the kind of drawing, the ^f^ excep- 
sort of colour, and the degree of sham medievalism, j^ercial""' 
demanded by the philistine and supplied by the stained 
trade, and, as a rule, he can find little else. A few glass is 
exceptional cases apart, he cannot find the original merely kept 
conceptions of artists produced with the single- average 
minded desire to give the best that is in them. public taste. 

In the better picture galleries he will find every Pictures 
variety of excellence and incompetence represented, good and 
and among other varieties I fear he will find works ^ork^f the 
by men who so far descend to the commercial level artists. 
that they paint for the market, but even these are 
not working under another man's control and for 
that other man's profit. What they give is their 
own, such as it is j it will not find a market unless it 
excels in some way, possibly only in the more super- 
ficial qualities, such as satisfy no cultivated artistic 
mind, but if the work has acquired popularity, it Employes 
must be owing to some kind of originality, some of stained 
degree of exceptional ability, something personal to alUrained 

^ It need hardly be said that Profit must not be confounded with 
Pay- under existing conditions all work must be paid for. Profit 
is where a man does not do the work, but pays so much for it and 
sells it for so much more, and whose income depends upon how 
much he can make out of the transaction. It is a question of 
Capital and Interest qualified by the amount of personal super- 
intendence involved, only this superintendence is not paid for 
according to value, but depends upon how much the capitalist can 
get out of the workman, with the obvious result that it is to his 
interest to get the cheapest work available that will just satisfy 
popular requirements. 

6 Stained Glass as an c^rt 

to a busi- the painter. He has not been trained with a dozen 
ness stand- others to produce one cut and dried style of work 
that will satisfy the requirements of a business firm. 

Our inquiring amateur, if he really pursues the 
subject, will soon discover this cut and dried sameness 
in the commercial stained glass of the day, and will 
feel the difference between the splendid work of the 
thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, and 
the modern shams which profess to be in the styles 
of those periods, but he may easily find himself much 
at sea as to what he should look for, and may pos- 
sibly not reject a helping hand offered by one who 
can speak from long experience. 
This essay I have endeavoured to divine correctly the diffi- 
mtendedto culties which beset the educated outsider who desires 
some^fthe ^^ look at Stained glass intelligently, because this 
amateur's seemed a necessary preliminary to their removal, and 
diflSculties. will now address myself to the more interesting task 
of showing" what the material can do and ought 
to do. 

For this purpose three things are indispensable : 

1. A brief but clear account of the technique and 

methods pertaining to the material. 

2. An examination into the artistic possibilities 

inherent in it from the point of view of its 

3. A consideration of the artistic question in 

relation to the situation and purpose of 

the work. 
We will take these three divisions in order, and 
treat them as clearly and simply as the subject 


STAINED glass window consists (a) Mate- 
of pieces of white and coloured Ri^l. 
glass, on which lines and 
shadows have been painted 
and burnt in, joined together 
with grooved leads. 

The colour is in the glass Colour of 
itself, being introduced while glass. 
it is in a state of fusion. It 
would be quite foreign to the 
present inquiry to treat of the ingredients employed 
or any of the processes of glass-making, but a few 
words will be necessary to explain exactly what kind 
of material the glass-painter has to deal with. 

The colour as a rule equally pervades the whole 
of a sheet of glass, so that the only variety in any 
one sheet arises from its unequal thickness, the thick 
parts appearing necessarily deeper and the thin parts 
lighter. There are, however, some exceptions to this 
rule : ruby glass, for instance, is so intense that no Flashed 
light would pass through a piece thick enough for 
practical purposes, and to meet this difficulty the 
glass-blower dips his rod first into melted white glass 
and then into ruby, so that the knob of white 


Stained Glass as an c^rt 

glass is coated with the ruby. When this is blown 
out the result is a sheet of thick white glass covered 
with a thin superficial layer of ruby. This ruby face 
is often very unequal in thickness and streaky in 
character, qualities which are useful to the artist. 
Flashed glass (as it is called) has this further 
advantage, that the thin film can be bitten out with 
fluoric acid, partly or entirely, so as to lighten the 
colour or remove it altogether and expose the white 

Beside ruby there is a flashed pink made with 
gold, rather cold in colour, but by flashing it on 
pale yellow glass instead of white a very glowing 
beautiful colour is produced. Some blues also are 
Excellence The beauty and variety of the colours now obtain- 
of modern ^ble is very great, and the belief entertained by some 
that stained glass is a lost art is wholly without 
foundation. Some few colours which were in use in 
the early periods have not been yet reproduced, but 
we possess many of great beauty which were not 
known then, and artists owe much to the well-directed 
efforts of the leading glass-manufacturers who supply 
them with such excellent material. 

It has been said that the colour of any sheet of 
glass equally pervades the whole, varying only in 
depth, according as the sheet is thicker or thinner. 
Occasionally, however, ' spoiled ' glass is to be had 
where a little of one colour has remained at the 
bottom of a pot in which another coloured glass is 
melted, in which case the old colour gets streaked 
into the lowest part of the new, sometimes with very 
charming" results. No good art ought to depend on 
accidents, but every true artist ought to be able to 
utilize a happy accident when it offers itself. The 


Streaky pot. 

Material and Technique 

pure coloured glass in which the hue penetrates the 
whole material is known to the craft as ' pot-metal.' 
Streaked sheets of blended colour are euphoniously 
styled ' streaky pot.' 

In the most ancient stained glass the only colours Yellow 
obtained were those of the pot-metal, but early in stain. 
the fourteenth century a mode of imparting to the 
glass a charming yellow stain was discovered, and 
the artists of the time soon learnt to make excellent 
use of it. It enabled them to give great variety to 
white glass, and, as a natural consequence, white 
glass was henceforth used much more freely, but the 
stain can be used on many other colours, and when 
applied to blue glass gives many agreeable varieties 
of green. 

In later years glass was painted on the surface Enamel 
with enamel colours, but this was in the decadence colours. 
of the art j the colour so obtained lacks the richness 
and transparency of the pot-metal, and the endeavour 
to avoid the use of leads by getting several colours 
on to one piece of glass, injured the work 
in a way which will be more conveniently gmk, 
considered when treating of technique. ^^ 

A few words must be said about the lead. Lead. 

This will be familiar to most readers in 
ordinary lattice-windows, and it is only 
necessary to say that it is made in thin 
flexible strips, grooved on both sides so 
that the section is as shown in Fig. i. The 
projecting portion which encloses the glass 
is called the leaf, the centre portion which 
lies between the adjacent pieces of glass Fig. i. 
is called the heart. The leads are made of 
various sizes j that which goes round the outside of 
a window to bind it together being necessarily thick 


Stained Glass as an <LArt 

and strong". In old windows the leads which unite 
the pieces of glass are narrow, not thicker than most 
of the outlines. Much wider leads are often used now, 
for no good reason that I can perceive j they certainly 
have a coarse and clumsy appearance ^ 
Iron. There is another important material essential to the 

construction of a stained glass window, and that is 
the iron. Small pieces of glass united with flexible 
leads would be unable to stand any pressure of wind 
without the support of iron-work. In Early English 
buildings, where the windows were often very broad 
and without muUions, the iron-work was a very 
important feature, and it was usually disposed in 
geometrical figures, which were made the basis of 
the design of the window (see Fig. 2). Mullions 
and narrow lights gave neither occasion nor scope 
for such treatment, and the iron-work as a rule now 
takes the form of simple horizontal bars with the 
occasional addition, if the window is rather broad, 
of an upright stanchion. 
Shading It remains only to mention the pigment used 

pigment, fg,. lii^es and shadows. This has to be of a kind 
that can be fused in the kiln without being destroyed. 
The glass, when painted and put in the kiln, is 
watched through a spy-hole by the kiln-man, who 
lowers the heat just before the glass reaches melting- 
point ; at this moment the pigment is fused, and the 
surface of the glass so far softened as to unite 
with it firmly. If properly fired, the lines and 
shadows will be absolutely incorporated with the 

^ Mr. Richmond tells me that for windows in St. Paul's at a 
great height and with much white unpainted glass he has found 
very broad lead valuable. I can well understand this. The 
above remark refers to painted and coloured glass at ordinary 

Material and Technique 


glass, and should present a smooth, silky surface. 
It need only be added that there are some slight 
varieties of the pigment, that which is used for the 
lines being quite opaque, while the shadows are 
painted with a monochrome of a black or blackish- 
brown colour of so transparent a quality that it 
does little more than deepen the natural hue of 
the glass, unless the shadow be a very dark one. 

We are now in a position to understand the [h) Tech- 
artistic possibilities inherent in stained glass, and to nique. 
consider by what technical methods these may be 

There are windows in existence which consist of Stained 
little more than a mosaic of pieces of coloured glass s'.^f^ 
leaded together without shadows and almost without i^j^^g ^,^j 
lines j there are a number such in the cathedral at shadows 
Pisa, in some of which even the heads are without l^.c^s dig- 
features, and I have heard this treatment defended "V ^\ 

J ^ _ interest. 

by very good authorities. 

The designs in the glass at Pisa are good, and the 
combination of colours agreeable, but the effect is 
not impressive, being at once bald and gay, rather 
than mysterious and solemn, as is the case with the 
best early windows where lines and shadows are 
employed. At the same time all intellectual interest 
is sacrificed by the method. All that is there can 
be seen at once, and nothing is left to arrest the 
attention, nothing to occupy the thoughts. The 
eye alone is addressed, and the eye is disappointed. 

If it were otherwise we could dismiss the subject 
of technique quickly, as there would be none to 
discuss j but if we are to aim at an art which shall 
possess dignity and elevation, and not content itself 
with being kaleidoscopic, the technique will be very 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 

art proper 
and a 

offered by 
for stained 
glass win- 

of stained 

The diiFerence between art proper and a technical 
art may be readily illustrated by comparing a picture 
with a stained glass window. In the former the sole 
object of the artist is to produce an impression on 
the mind through the eye by means of form and 
colour. The canvas and pigments are merely means 
to an end, and have absolutely no value or utility 
apart from that end. In the latter the primary 
object is to glaze an aperture in the wall of a building 
for the purpose of admitting light and excluding 
weather. The glass, lead, and iron are primarily 
means to this end, and the question whether they 
shall be so treated as to constitute a work of art is 
a secondary one. A simple desire for beauty might 
sufficiently account for the introduction of artistic 
form and colour into glazed windows, but practical 
considerations may have led to the same result. 

When civilization moved northward, where high- 
pitched roofs and weather-proof buildings were 
required in place of hypathral and other classic 
forms employed in Greece and Italy, the question 
of admitting light without weather became important, 
and the use of glass was greatly extended. But large 
apertures filled with white glass would give far more 
light than was agreeable or necessary, and the reduc- 
tion of the light by making the apertures small 
would illuminate a large building in a very unequal 
and unsatisfactory way ; it was desirable, therefore, 
to subdue the light without diminishing the scale of 
the windows, and coloured glass supplied an obvious 
means of doing this effectually, and in a manner 
susceptible of artistic treatment. 

The treatise of the monk Theophilus on the 
making of glass and of stained glass windows is 
attributed to the tenth century, earlier than any 

Material and Technique i? 

extant stained glass, and yet in this work he describes 
the designing and executing of figures, draperies, &c., 
in coloured glass, so that at this early age the art 
had reached a high development and was devoted to 
the representation of figure-subjects. 

Stained glass is thus strictly a technical art. The 
glazing of the open window space and the subduing 
of the light are purely practical matters, and the 
artist, having to deal with pieces of coloured glass, 
has to consider how these can be treated so as to 
be beautiful to the eye and interesting to the 

The first obvious fact in relation to the material Splendid 
is the splendour of its colour. Nothing painted colour the 
with pigments on an opaque surface can compare j^a^cha" " 
with coloured glass for intensity, glow, and brilliancy, racteristic 
or for the width of its range from dark to light, of stained 
If a painted picture is placed in a good light, the S^^^^- 
darkest colour in it is fully illuminated so that it 
can contain nothing really dark ; and, on the other 
hand, the most brilliant light in a painting is dull 
compared with the sky. Whereas in a stained glass 
window the darks are very intense, being seen against 
the light, while the lights are the light of the sky 
itself, and every colour glows with that same light 
transmitted through it. 

Thus for jewelled splendour of colour, stained Unfit for 
glass stands alone; but, on the other hand, it is represent- 
wholly unfitted for imitating natural effects, con- efflc"s!"" 
sisting as it does of sharply opposed colours 
separated by thick black lines. 

From which considerations it follows that any 
treatment of the material which does not develop 
its capacities in the way of glorious colour, and 
which does aim at pictorial realism, must be a failure j 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 

of modern 
in seeking 
the unfit. 

ness of 
the subtle 
effects of 

and yet such is the perversity of the modern 
decorator, that a school of stained glass painters 
was established in Munich, and a very popular 
school it became both here and abroad, which 
endeavoured to make stained glass windows look 
like oil paintings, with the result that they look like 
painted window-blinds. Except in the matter of 
composition and arrangement of colour, there is 
hardly a point in common between the beauties 
attainable in stained glass and those presented by 
nature and imitable in a picture. 

Nature is full of subtle play of colour. Whether 
we look at the infinitely tender gradations of sky 
and cloud, at the equally tender and delicate 
transitions in the colour of the human body, at the 
alternations of grey light and green transparent 
depth in foliage, at the glitter and sheen of water, 
or at any other of the numberless beauties which 
nature offers us in such lavish profusion, we find on 
every hand qualities so delicate and complex that 
only the greatest painters, employing a material of 
almost unlimited subtlety, have successfully inter- 
preted them, while stained glass offers no means of 
making even the most distant approach to their 

The very abundance and variety of these beauties 
is bewildering to the ordinary observer, and it is 
only when certain aspects of them are selected and 
presented to us by a Veronese or a Correggio, 
a Turner or a Watts, that we become fully aware of 
their existence. 

The people who thought they could imitate these 
tender and delicate gradations by means of pieces of 
coloured glass joined together with strips of lead 
can never have perceived their beauty at all, or they 

Material and Technique 15 

would not have produced the vulgar caricatures nature with 
of it, which are the distinguishing characteristic of Pi^'^*^^ of 
the Munich school. gkssTnd 

It is not surprising that men who were so blind lead. 
to the beauties of nature were equally so to the 
splendour of the noble works in stained glass left 
us by the artists of the early middle ages. When 
one turns from one of these glorious windows in 
a continental cathedral to the modern Munich 
chromo-lithograph transparencies (for they are like 
nothing else) that are often found side by side with 
them, one marvels that such dense blindness to all 
that is fit and beautiful should be possible. 

But with trade all things are possible in the way 
of vulgarity and ugliness. Profit is the aim, and as 
the thing pays, what more can we want? 

So far I have only noted the impossibility of Ineffective- 
imitating natural effects in stained fflass, and the "^ss of such 

1 m 1 Til t ion 

necessary poverty of work produced by men blind if it were 
enough to make such a hopeless attempt ; but this possible. 
is only half the question, for if it were possible 
by some yet undiscovered method to obtain in 
glass perfect representations of nature, the result 
when placed in a window would be absolutely 
ineffective, and the labour would be worse than lost. 
The leaded coloured glass of the windows at Pisa, 
without lines and shadows, would be immeasurably 
superior as decorative art to any such realistic work, 
however successful as an imitation of nature. The 
pearly greys, the half-tints, and the gradations, which 
are the delight of the painter, would all be thrown 
away in a cathedral window where they could not 
even be seen. It has been said that glass offers Mistake of 
greater contrasts of light and dark than are possible using wide 
to the painter with canvas and pigment, and it might '^'^"^^ °^ 


Stained Glass as an c^rt 

light and 
dark in 
glass for 
the imita- 
tion of 

Failure of 
an attempt 
to obtain 
a better 
of nature 
in glass by 
tion of 

be contended that powerful effects of chiaroscuro 
would be a legitimate subject of imitation with the 
glass-painter, but there are at least two sound 
objections to this view. 

1. Such effects are occasionally to be seen in 
nature, and have been represented with noble results 
by certain painters, by Rembrandt in particular ; but 
within the strong contrasts of light and shade will 
be found those half-tints and subtle transitions of 
colour which are wholly foreign to the nature 
of stained glass. If these were eliminated the work 
would be vulgar and theatrical, as is the case in all 
attempts to present such effects in glass. 

2. Where these strong contrasts exist, there must 
necessarily be large masses of very deep and even 
impenetrable shadow. Such masses of shadow make 
a window heavy and gloomy, and exclude all that 
glowing and glittering beauty which is the peculiar 
glory of the material. 

I met lately with a curious illustration of the 
ineffectiveness which follows from any attempt to 
imitate nature in stained glass, when a friend at 
Bayreuth invited me to his house to see a ' picture,' 
which turned out to be a copy of a picture executed 
in glass. It was a piece of still life, fruit, &c., and 
the whole room was darkened, except the portion of 
window space occupied by the 'picture,' to show 
it off. 

It was produced by a method devised to obtain 
variety of colour without leads or other joints. 
The system was ingeniously conceived and cleverly 
employed. It gave not only varieties, but graduated 
transitions of colour, and my friend was confident 
that it would give the death-blow to the existing 
mode of treating stained glass. 

Material and Technique 17 

The method adopted was to use three sheets of 
flashed glass, red, blue, and yellow, and by skilfully 
biting out some or all of the coloured films, to get 
the required varieties of colour. If all the films 
were left intact, the result was deep neutral shadow j 
if all were bitten out, pure white was left \ if two 
colours or one were wholly bitten out, a pure 
primary or secondary colour was shown j and finally, 
by the partial removal of the dilFerent films, it was 
possible to obtain a practically unlimited variety of 
intermediate tints, any of which could be graduated 
one into the other. 

Here, then, was a fair opportunity of judging of 
the effect of realism in stained glass. Examined 
close to, as one would examine a small picture, 
the result was interesting, and showed some good 
qualities. There ' were no painted shadows, it was 
all pure glass, so that the colours were luminous, 
and in no part had it that muddiness and im- 
purity so common in oil pictures other than those 
by really good colourists. But on looking at it 
from the other side of the small room in which it 
was exhibited, and regarding it as a piece of decora- 
tion, it was hopelessly ineffective. The mere thought 
of a window so treated was depressing. The contrast Fatal de- 
in depth between the solid opaque wall in full ^cts of the 
shadow and the clear space of open sky is so great '"^^^^o'^- 
that, if the space is to be treated decoratively, there 
must be corresponding contrasts in the work, and 
the lead lines are as invaluable for decorative as for 
structural purposes. Without them the work looked 
poor and flat. Another fatal defect appeared at 
once. It was essential to the would-be realism 
that the light transmitted through the glass should 
be clear and equal. This can never be ensured in 

1 8 Stained Glass as an z^rt 

church or other windows where trees or buildings 
are always liable to obstruct the direct light. 

This is regrettable in the case of stained glass 
proper, which is always seen to greatest advantage 
against clear sky, but it is fatal to a realistic picture 
to see objects through it. In the small specimen 
I saw (about two square feet) it was easy to get the 
whole of it against clear sky, but even so it never 
looked right, for the sky itself would not behave 
with proper consideration. It was a fine day, with 
blue sky and bright white passing clouds. These 
clouds were perfectly visible through the picture, 
the ' values and relations ' of which were all thrown 
out in consequence, one part appearing to be in 
a cold blue shadow, and another in a bright warm 
light, quite foreign alike to the painter's intention 
and to any natural effect, since a passing light would 
illuminate only one side of the objects upon which 
it fell, making the shadows appear more intense by 
contrast, whereas in our transparency the cold blue 
and warm white cut across lights and shadows with 
perfect impartiality, giving an appearance of flatness 
and unreality to the whole. 

This defect might be partly remedied by backing 
the picture with ground glass, but this would destroy 
the transparency, which is the one redeeming feature 
of the process. 

Yet another objection of a practical kind is fatal 
to the method. It can only be carried out in sheets 
of moderate size, such as the specimen shown to me, 
so that a stained glass window carried out in this 
manner must consist of very small pictures, invisible 
at a moderate distance, enclosed in iron or wooden 
framework ; or if the subject extend over several 
such sheets, these must be united with bars of some 


Material and Technique i<> 

kind, which, however thin, must absolutely disfigure 
the realistic picture, as the bars and lead lines 
absolutely enhance the brilliancy of the decorative 

I venture to think that any person of artistic 
feeling who may have a vague sense that stained 
glass would be improved if it could attain to a 
closer imitation of nature, would be cured of such 
a fallacy by an inspection of a work produced by 
the method just described. 

I have to some extent anticipated a later part of Necessity 
our inquiry in thus treating of the artistic possi- of showing 
bilities to be found in stained fflass, but it will be that realism 

o ^ ... is im* 

noted that I have only considered the point in its possible 
negative aspect. I have shown what the material glass be 
cannot do and should not be coerced into attempt- ^^^^ open- 
ing; and so much as this I felt was desirable, in into"ech-^ 
order to clear the ground that we might be able nique. 
to enter upon an examination of the genuine tech- 
nical methods applicable to our material with 
a better idea of their true aim. 

It will perhaps be convenient here to describe {c) De- 
these methods categorically. scription 

In the first place, the artist must be supplied with cesses. ' 
an accurate scale drawing of the window to be filled, The 
and with all essential particulars as to its situation. Design. 
such as its height from the ground, its aspect, the 
distances from which it will be seen, external sur- 
roundings, &c. The first process, then, is to make 
a design, a coloured sketch on a small scale. 

The next, to an artist who is careful about his Figure 
draughtsmanship, will be to make studies of the nude studies. 
figures and of the draperies. 

Then, having obtained accurate full-sized pat- Cartoons, 
terns of the window spaces, or ' lights,' as they are 

C X 


Stained Glass as an (^Art 

technically called, cartoons on the actual scale of 
the window must be prepared from the sketch and 
studies, which should gi\'e with perfect completeness 
the outlines, the shadows, the leads, and even the 
bars, all in fact but the colour, which has been 
given in the small sketch j for the artist should be 
thinking of the work as glass from first to last, and 
the various structural essentials proper to the 
material should not only be present to his mind, 
but should form a part of his design. In some of 
the illustrations which follow, I have to some extent 
departed from this practice j that is to say, after so 
many years devoted to this kind of work that the 
retention in my mind of the nature of the material 
became automatic, I allowed myself, for particular 
purposes, occasionally to finish a cartoon as a 
drawing, in which case I made a separate tracing to 
show the leads and bars. 
Selection Xhe selection of coloured glasses has now to be 

of glass. made, and for this purpose the artist requires a frame 
with specimens of all the sheets at his disposal. 
These are commonly leaded together, but I find it 
very desirable to keep them loose in a frame so 
constructed that the pieces can be readily shifted 
for the purpose of trying the effect of any one 
colour by the side of any others. I find it necessary 
to keep a large stock of different sheets, not for the 
sake of getting many colours into one window, but 
to get as much play as possible into each colour. 
A piece of blue drapery, for instance, will probably 
be made up of eight or ten different blues. If 
executed with one, the effect would be very 
monotonous and bald. A large stock is also 
necessary in order to get the precise harmony 
required for a particular design, however simple 

Material and Technique ai 

that design may be. The sheets and samples are 
numbered to correspond, so as to make the reference 
easy for the cutter, to whom the cartoon must now 
be transferred. 

His first step is to get a 'cut-line' drawing Cut-Jine 
prepared. This is done on tracing cloth, and consists drawing. 
of black lines drawn along the centres of all the 
leads and bars, numbers corresponding to the sheets 
to be used being inscribed in all the spaces. 

The cutter, having laid this drawing upon his Cutting 
table, takes the various sheets indicated, and placing *^^^ S^^^^- 
them in succession over their proper spaces, cuts 
them to their required shape by letting his diamond 
follow the black lines seen through the glass. The 
cutter ought to be a man of judgment and ability, 
because though the artist has indicated the colours 
to be used, there is scope for still further variety 
arising from the varying thickness in the individual 
sheets, and, with the sketch and cartoon before him, 
a good cutter will know how to avail himself of the 
gradations in depth so as to assist the light and 
shade in the design. 

The painter now takes the pieces of cut glass. Outlines. 
and placing them upon the cartoon, he traces the 
outlines upon them with the opaque pigment before 
mentioned, some lines however being kept transparent 
in quality, where they are not meant to be too 
obtrusive, particularly in the case of ornamental 
diapers, which are often intended to give texture 
only to the glass, and not to assert themselves 

The pieces of glass thus painted are now put into First fire. 
the kiln, where they are fired until the painted lines 
are thoroughly incorporated into the glass itself. 

For the ensuing processes of shading it is necessary 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 

Setting out that the glass should be seen as a whole against the 
the glass light. For this purpose a sheet of plate-glass is 
painter. taken, large enough to include the panel under 
treatment j this is laid on a table with the cut-line 
drawing or cartoon underneath it, and the pieces of 
glass with the outlines are fitted into their places 
with the aid of the cartoon seen through the glass, 
until the whole is set out like a dissected puzzle. 
It will be remembered that the pieces of glass cannot 
touch each other, because allowance has to be made 
for the ' heart ' of the lead. The cutter makes this 
allowance, and, as a consequence, there is a narrow 
space between every piece of glass and its neighbours 
as they lie upon the sheet. In these spaces melted 
wax is now dropped at intervals, which make the 
loose pieces adhere to the plate-glass. The plate, 
which is always framed, can now be lifted up and 
placed upon an easel so constructed that no bars or 
legs interrupt the clear view. 
Shading. The painter, if he has proper regard for his work, 

will, before beginning to shade, paint black lines 
on the back of the plate-glass to fill up all the 
interstices so as to represent the leads, because the 
presence of these lines of bright light would greatly 
disturb the effect and falsify it, since in the finished 
work the leads would necessarily appear black. The 
painter having his easel now before a clear window, 
with the cartoon set up at his side, proceeds to shade 
the glass. It need hardly be said that the painter 
must be an expert draughtsman ; indeed, he should 
be an artist in every sense of the word, except as 
regards the creative faculty, since the interpretation 
of the artist's design depends upon his artistic 
perception and his accuracy of eye and hand. The 
painter of a stained glass window is, in fact, to the 

Material and Technique 23 

designer, what the pianist or violinist is to the 
composer of the sonata. 

We have now to consider the question of the Methods of 
mode of shading. In the very early glass, where the shading. 
pieces were very small, the leads many, and the out- 
lines thick, the amount of shading was small, the 
glass being already almost sufficiently toned by the 
multiplicity of leads and lines, so that much shading 
would have rendered the glass too dark ; a slight 
smear shading was then employed, strengthened 
with cross-hatching, which let more light pass 
through than a heavier tone of shadow would have 
permitted. With the development of the art larger 
pieces of glass came into use, and a stipple-shading 
was adopted, which allowed a much more delicate 
finish than was possible with the earlier method. 
In the later decadence of the art the shading was 
greatly exaggerated, the architectonic conditions, 
depending on the destination of the work, were lost 
sight of, and the true genius of the material ignored; 
but the stipple-shading was developed when the art 
was at its best, and is in common use now together 
with another method, consisting of a series of ' matts.' 

This latter method I will describe first. The The 'matt' 
more transparent shading colour is laid over the method. 
whole of the portion to be treated in a flat wash, 
and then lightly brushed over with a badger 
'softener' till it is quite even. When dry, the 
lights are taken out of this with a hoghair brush 
with the hairs cut short, called a scrub. At this 
first stage the matt is freely removed so as to remain 
only where the shadows are darkest, graduating 
rapidly into the clear glass. A second matt is now 
laid over this. As the colour is mixed with gum, 
the first matt is not washed off by the second if this 


Second fire. 


Third fire. 

and yellow 

Stained Glass as an oyTrt 

latter is laid on and softened quickly enough, which 
requires some practice and skill on the part of the 
painter. The lights are then again removed, but 
much less freely, only small portions of the glass 
being left quite clear. A high degree of delicacy 
of gradation and modelling can be obtained with the 
scrub when handled by an able draughtsman, and 
the glass at this stage ought to look fully shaded. 

The pieces are now removed from the plate and 
again put in the kiln, where the colour is well 
burnt in, so that the surface of the painted glass 
feels quite smooth. It will now appear much paler 
than before firing. For some purposes this is suffi- 
cient, but as a rule, especially in large scale work 
and where the light is strong, it would look thin. 

The painter has therefore generally to have the 
glass rewaxed to the plate, and to repeat the two matt 
processes till he has obtained the necessary vigour and 
depth in his work. The strength could be obtained 
by pamting the first matts thicker, but the scrub- 
marks in that case would look coarse and scratchy. 

The glass has now to be fired in the kiln for the 
third and perhaps the last time. 

In many cases, however, additional work may be 
required before the glass is ready for leading, or, as 
it is technically called, ' glazing.' 

Revision and correction may be needed. Some 
parts may be too dark, and will have to be refired to 
make them lighter \ some may be too light, and will 
want repainting and refiring. The yellow stain also 
generally wants a separate fire. The degree of heat 
necessary to fix the shading colour thoroughly would 
make the stain much too dark, so that the stain, which 
is usually applied to the back of the glass, is not 
added till all the shading is finished and burnt in. 

Material and Technique 2^ 

The difference between stipple-shading and the Stipple- 
matt system lies in the manner of laying on the shading. 
shading colour. Instead of lightly brushing it to 
an even tint with the badger, the painter dabs the 
wet wash lightly with the points of the dry brush, 
so as to give it a granulated surface. This can be 
made even all over the part under treatment, or it 
can, by a little manipulation, be somewhat graduated 
so as to be thinner in the prominent and lighter 
parts of a figure. The stippled ground can then 
be treated in all respects like the matt, with the 
scrub, and the repeated firings. The artistic advan- 
tages of the two methods will be more conveniently 
considered later on. 

The glass is now ready for the glazier, who begins Glazing, 
by laying the cut-line tracing upon the glazing- 
bench and pinning it out quite straight. Then he 
nails straight bars of wood along the base and one 
side of the window or panel of the window he is 
glazing, to form firm starting lines, and, beginning 
with straight strips of lead along these, he lays the 
first piece of glass in the corner, fitted into the 
grooves of the leads, and, cutting a fresh piece of 
lead long enough to cover the other edges of the 
piece, he fits it on to them, and so on with every new 
piece, inserting nails at intervals, in the interstices, 
to keep the pieces firmly in their places. When the 
glass and leads are thus set out and enclosed in 
a strong surrounding lead, every joint is soldered, 
so as to unite the hitherto disjointed pieces into 
a connected whole, which is then carefully turned 
over and soldered on the other side. 

The window is now complete as a work of art, Cement- 
but it needs yet two processes to make it ready for i"g- 




Stained Glass as an z^Trt 

its destination. As it stands it would not keep out 
weather. To achieve this necessary object, cement 
is laid over the whole, rubbed well into all the leads 
on both sides, and finally cleaned off the glass. 
This, when hard, has the eiFect of stiffening the 
work as well as making it weather-proof. 

It will be remembered that, owing to the flexible 
nature of this kind of glazing, horizontal saddlebars, 
or other form of iron-work, have to be employed, 
to enable it to resist pressure of wind. In order to 
provide means of binding the stained glass to the 
iron-work, copper wire is cut into short lengths, and 
the middle of each piece is soldered to the leads 
wherever they will be crossed by a bar. When the 
window is being fixed, the loose ends of the wires are 
bound round the bars and twisted together. In the 
case of all but very small windows, the work has to 
be divided into panels, as a large piece would be 
too unwieldy to move about without breaking. 
These panels are always made to correspond with 
bars, so that the top of one, and the bottom of 
the next panel above it, shall meet at a bar, and the 
binding-wires of both be twisted round it. 

This completes our description of the processes 
involved in the production of a stained glass win- 
dow, a description somewhat cursory, no doubt, and 
insufficient to instruct the craftsman, but full enough 
to enable the amateur to understand the technical 
conditions of the work he is looking at. 

Briefly, to recapitulate, we have seen that the 
material at our disposal consists of: (i) Glass, 
coloured in the manufacture, some homogeneously 
throughout, and some consisting of light glass, 
coated with a film of deeper colour, called ' Flashed 
Glass,' in which the film can be wholly or partially 

Material and Technique %i 

bitten out with acid, the available colours being 
many and beautiful ; (2) Shading pigments, with 
which the glass can be deepened without greatly 
affecting its colour j (3) A very transparent golden 
yellow stain 5 (4) Spoiled glass, or ' Streaky Pot,' 
where colours have been accidentally blended in 
a manner often useful to the artist j (y) Grooved 
leads, giving bold and vigorous outlines to the glass j 
(6) Strong iron-work to support the otherwise too 
flexible glazing against pressure of wind. 

We have also seen that the processes involved in 
the production of a window with these materials 
are as follows : (i) The making of a small coloured 
design 5 (2) Figure studies ; (3) Full-sized cartoons j 
(4) Selection of glass ; (f) Making of a cut-line 
drawing J (d) Cutting the glass ; (7) Painting the out- 
lines j (8) The first firing 5 (9) Setting out the pieces 
of coloured glass on plate-glass for the painter j 

(10) The first shading with 'matt' or 'stipple'; 

(11) The second firing; (12) The second shading 
process; (13) Third firing; (14) Corrections and 
yellow stain; (ij) Fourth firing; (16) Glazing; 
(17) Cementing; (18) Binding. 

It will be perceived that even a small piece of Eighteen 
stained srlass demands all these eiohteen processes. processes 

We have also cleared the ground by considering required for 
the insufficiency of mere leaded glass, without lines any piece 
or shadows, to satisfy the eye or the intellect, and of stained 
we have exposed the irredeemable vice of attempting ^ 
to imitate natural effects in stained glass ; so that 
I venture to hope we have reached a stage at which 
we can satisfactorily consider how best to apply 
the above processes to the materials at our disposal, 
if we desire to obtain the highest beauty which they 
are capable of exhibiting. 






of glass for 
of form. 




OLOUR has already been dealt 
with at some length for the 
purpose of showing what 
stained glass can do in a degree 
unequalled in any other art, 
and what it is absolutely in- 
capable of doing, but form 
has not yet been touched 
upon, and we shall find that 
a totally different footing to 


In stained glass anything can be achieved in form 
as well as in any other material (with the exception, 
of course, of sculpture, which deals with ' the 
round ') j the glass can be just as readily cut to one 
shape as to another, and outlines can be drawn upon 
the glass as freely as upon paper or canvas. Not 
only so, but light and shade can be given in any 
required degree of strength or tenderness, breadth 
or finish. 

It follows that deliberate inaccuracy in drawing 
is purely gratuitous, and when applied to the human 

Q^rtistic Voss'thilities in Stained Glass 


figure is a gross and ridiculous affectation. I shall absurdity of 
endeavour to show presently that in the matter of Q'^^iberate 
light and shade, much that is possible to the material jj-, di-awiiT^ 
is not desirable from the point of view of decoration, the figure. 
but I propose first to deal with form in its contours. 

It is a common view that colour is the one im- Form at 
portant quality to be sought for in stained glass, 1^^^*^ ^^ 
and that form in this material is a secondary matter, ^g colour in 
I cannot share this opinion. A moment's considera- glass. 
tion must show that in no other material is form 
so conspicuously prominent as in this. The sharp 
opposition of the colours, the brilliancy of the 
lights and depth of the darks, and the vigorous 
outlines given by the leads, all combine to emphasise 
every form to a degree which even at times compels 
the artist to adopt methods for suppressing its 
aggressive prominence. 

It follows that both design and draughtsmanship 
are of the highest importance in glass, and in the 
early ages this was fully appreciated. 

I give a copy of a very fine window from the Study of 
nave of Chartres Cathedral, which exhibits these 5^!^.^'^^'^^ 
qualities in a high degree (Fig. 2). It will be seen ^" °^' 
in the first place how ingeniously the space has been 
divided by the iron-work into large circles, and Geo- 
smaller quatrefoils, for the figure-subjects, while the metrical 
intervening parts and the border are filled with 
ornament. The backgrounds of the figures are all 
of sapphire blue, those of the ornament are all ruby, 
but to avoid too harsh and absolute a division, there 
is a ring of ruby inside each iron circle, next the 
blue background, and a ring of blue outside the 
same parts of the iron-work, next the ruby ground, 
separated, however, from it by a thin white line. 
But while these rings soften the transitions of colour 


Stained Glass as an CL/Trt 

design of 
window as 
a whole : 
in detail. 

Action of 

the figures 





and render its distribution more agreeable, they 
further emphasise the geometrical design. 

The small quatrefoils are made yet smaller by 
the inclusion of all three rings within the iron frame, 
giving greater prominence to the larger subjects. 
The ornament is chiefly in blue and white, on the 
ruby ground, while the figures contrast admirably 
with it by the quiet colours which prevail in them : 
deep rich greens, low-toned browns, brownish purples 
and greenish greys, relieved by whites, occasional 
light fresh greens and yellows (the latter very 
sparingly used), and a pleasant light pinkish colour, 
quieter than that of the mallow, more like the 
lighter fritillary. The quiet colours, however, pre- 
dominate in the figaires. The whole is glittering and 
jewelled to an extraordinary degree, but the point 
to which I would call attention here is the import- 
ance and the prominence of the form throughout 
the work. 

In design and composition the window is a con- 
summate work of art. The disposition of the figures 
throughout the whole, and the treatment of the 
separate groups, are alike admirable, but not less so 
is the conception and drawing of the individual 
figures. The draughtsmanship is archaic, necessarily 
so, owing to the primitive condition of the art, but 
the figures are full of life, movement, and grace. 
Moreover, it will be noticed that the form of the 
figure and the movement of the limbs are every- 
where clearly shown, being emphasised rather than 
concealed by the draperies. 

Whether this was a survival of the classic tradi- 
tion, or was an independent northern development, 
matters little. It was the genuine feeling of the 
artist, and imparts a high order of beauty to the 

Fig. 2. 


(LArtist'tc ^Possibilities in Stained Glass 31 

work, contrasting favourably with the tendency in 
later periods to envelop the figures in masses of 
drapery, often admirable in execution, but disguising 
or wholly losing the essential lines of the figure. 

The unlimited opportunity offered by stained glass Necessity 
for the presentation of form, and the conspicuousness of em- 
of the forms so presented, render it important in the tiie es"^^ 
highest degree that the lines should not only be fine sential 
in design and beautiful individually, but they should rather than 
present that which is essential rather than that which *!^'^ i";"" 

• -J , dental 

is accidental. forms. 

In this respect, as in others to be noted presently. Analogy 
stained glass resembles sculpture, and bas-relief in between 
particular, for although colour is so striking a feature Gksrand 
in glass and is absent or subordinate in sculpture, Bas-relief, 
yet they have this in common, that there is no 
imitative colour in either. 

All ancient sculpture, Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek, Colour in 
and mediaeval, was coloured, but, as in elass, for ^°* purely 
purely decorative, not imitative purposes. The „q(. i^ita-' 
qualities of colour and workmanship, which in the tive. 
hands of a great painter make imitative colour 
interesting, are unattainable in sculpture or stained 
glass 1, such resemblance as there is between the 
colour in these arts and that of nature being merely 
suggestive j a conventional approximate flesh tint 
being used for faces and limbs, greens for trees, and 
so forth. Grotesquely false hues are naturally 
avoided, although realistic accuracy is not to be 

It follows that, in the absence of the marvellous Importance 
workmanship which imparts such interest to the offormcon- 

^ This statement will want qualification as regards glass. The 
point will be dealt with later on, but does not seriously aftect the 
present argument. 

Fig, 3. 

zArtistic Tossihilities in Stained Glass 



details of costume in a portrait by Titian, Velasquez, 
or Holbein, the attempt to represent heavy masses 
of drapery in sculpture or stained glass must be 
more or less of a failure. For purposes of portraiture 
such forms may occasionally be demanded, and 
a true artist will find an artistic solution of the 
problem j but where the representation of nature 
is confined to form, the noblest and most essential 
form must be insisted on, and this, I contend, was 
done by the artists of the thirteenth century, both 
in their stained glass and sculpture. 

in both. 

of insisting 
on tlie 

Fig. 4. 

I give a few examples on a larger scale from the This 
Chartres window to illustrate this point, and it will P"""P^j 

JT 7 observed 

be seen how emphatically the mo\'ement of the in the 
limbs is insisted on, and how little this is obscured thirteenth 
by the draperies. The figure of Christ (Fig. 3) century. 
receiving- the soul of the Virgin (whose death is 
represented in the circle below) is conceived almost 
in the spirit of a Greek statue ^ and the groups of 
mourners are full of quiet dignity (Figs. 3 & 4) 5 on 
the other hand, what life and action is exhibited in 


Stained Glass as an o-Art 

the angels, those agents of God's omnipresent power. 
The two who show such eager interest in the newly- 
risen soul of the Virgin (Fig. 3), the two swinging 
censers in adoration (Fig. 4), and especially the two 


descending head foremost with the crown in the 
apex of the window (Fig. j-)j all alike are instinct 
with life and grace. 

What a contrast to the lifeless caricatures of 

oylrt'tstic Possibilities in Stained Glass 35 

thirteenth-century work offered in the commercial Contrast 
interest to meet the demand of those who were so between 
ignorant as to imagine that an affected and meaning- ^, ^^ 
less angularity was characteristic of the art of that thirteenth- 
period, centiuy 

The whole work is full of vitality, and I think it ^''^^^,Pl°" 
will be evident that this depends on the form, since ^^^^ ^ 
the reproductions here given do not show the colour. 
Many early windows, indeed, contain little colour. 
The ' Seven Sisters ' windows in York Minster, in 
which there are no figures, consist of delicate gri- 
saille, with very little admixture of colour, and in 
many figure designs the colour is almost or wholly 
limited to the yellow stain ; the result being very 

Thus it appears that colour, though a splendid Form in- 
property of stained glass, is not indispensable to it, dispensable 
while form is. We may omit the colour, and occa- Cofourmay 
sionally this must be done where light has to be econo- be omitted. 
mized, but we cannot omit form. The pieces of glass 
must be cut in some forms, and these, when picked 
out with leaded outlines, are by no means of a retir- 
ing character. They insist on displaying themselves 
in a very conspicuous manner, and the importance of 
the design of which they form parts is proportionally 
great, both as a whole and in its details. 

It lias been shown that there are no limits to what Treatment 
can be done by the stained glass painter in the way of form in 
of form ; that he can cut glass to any required shape, ^ ^^^' 
paint any outlines on it as easily as on paper or 
canvas, and shade as delicately as in any other 
material, and even more powerfully if need be. 
What use is he then to make of these opportunities ? 
For we are now coming to close quarters with our 
material, and having shown what he ought not to do, 

D 1 


Stained Glass as an o-Art 

Two great 
and situa- 
tion and 
purpose of 

of glass. 

Increase of 
by use of 
lines and 

of light 
and dark 

it is time we arrived at some positive conclusion as 
to both the duties and privileges of the glass-painter. 

The lode-star which will guide us is always the 
same— the distinctive character and beauty of the 
material, and the destination and purpose of 
the work. On these two hang all the law and the 
prophets of the technical arts. 

As the situation of the work is to be considered 
later, we will begin here with the distinctive beauty 
of the material. 

As the distinctive character of glass is unquestion- 
ably its transparency, the preservation of this is 
the first duty of the glass-painter, who must aim at 
enhancing the brilliancy of the glass by his work- 
manship. \t may sound paradoxical to talk of 
heightening brilliancy by means of lines and shadows, 
which must in some degree darken, but the paradox 
is of a very innocent kind, since all are familiar 
with the fact that white paper and canvas must 
be lighter than when covered with colour, and 
yet convey no impression of brilliancy whatever. 
The same is true of glass. A pane of white glass 
merely looks a blank j substitute for this a design 
of plain coloured pieces, leaded together, and a 
certain amount of brilliancy is introduced, but this 
brilliancy can be greatly enhanced by the mode of 
treating the lines and shadows. 

In considering this treatment, one of the first 
points to be noted is the difference between deep 
colours and white or very light glass. A piece of 
pure white glass, without work on it, merely looks 
like a hole in the window, a piece of ruby or blue 
or any deep colour does not. The latter only wants 
a few bold lines and a very little shadow to relieve 
its flatness and to give point and value to the pure 

oyTrtht'tc Tossihilities in Stained Glass 


transparent parts, but the white glass needs more 
than this. It should be nearly covered with a very 
delicate film, from which pure lights should be only 
sparingly taken out, and none of the shadows should 
be dark. In large scale figures, where there may be 


white masses of considerable size, a certain depth 
will be necessary in parts in order to avoid a thin 
and flat appearance, but the shadows should never 
approach blackness. In very early work thick black 
lines (Fig. 6) were common on white glass, and 


Stained Glass as an <LArt 

Black lines 
on light 
glass in 
early glass 
later in 
favour of 
films of 

tage of 
matt in 
light glass 
and stipple 
in deep 

where the shadows were very slight and the pieces 
of glass small, this treatment certainly accorded with 
the character of the whole, and was probably neces- 
sary under the conditions, but as more finished 
modes of shading" were arrived at, and more interest 
given to details, these black lines were dropped, and 
a silvery quality of great beauty imparted to the 
whites by pure delicacy of workmanship. In very 
light glass a film, however pale, tells at any distance, 
and the clear glass, where a light is taken out, 
gleams wonderfully, whereas a black line disappears 
at a certain distance, the bright light on either side 
of it having" so much greater an effect on the eye 
that it seems to obliterate the line. For this reason 
the early painters who did use lines made them very 
thick. Having" a great admiration for the technical 
qualities of the old glass, I formerly defined the 
contours of folds in white drapery with outlines, 
though not so thick as the old ones, but I found 
that where the shading was finished and delicate, 
the lines were in the way, and that the beauty of 
the material was most fully developed and the 
charm of texture best secured without them. 

In painting white and light colours, the matt 
appears to me to be better than the stipple, since 
the even film is susceptible of more subtle modula- 
tions than the granulated surface, but in the case of 
coloured glass, and particularly with deep colours, 
the stipple has advantages over the matt. Much 
shading would obscure deep colours and destroy 
their brilliancy, but such shading as is employed 
must be rather strong or it will not tell, and if 
a matt of any depth is laid on a deep blue, for 
instance, the tendency is to discolour the blue, 
whereas the comparatively open character of the 


Fig. 7. 


^wj^\ ". 'm. 

\t'fr^''.'^\ ' 


:.{i^ ''ir* 9 ' *.*«•*<• j.r ♦^♦:i- 

I, • !■•■/> 


(height about 19 FT.) 

Q-Artistic Possibilities in Stained Glass 


stipple allows the colour to show between the darker 
granulations, and thus the purity of the native hue 
of the glass is preserved. 

I give a reproduction of a window in the transept Venetian 
of the cathedral at Florence (Fig. 7). It is Venetian window in 
work, and, like all its companions, is a marvel of ^"°"^o ^t 
colour. It is a much later work than the Chartres 
glass, and the difference of workmanship is con- 
siderable. Both at Chartres and in Florence I had 
light scaffolding put up to enable me to examine the 
glass closely, and I found in the later work very Few Jines 
few lines except those formed by the leads, which and trans- 
are employed profusely, and the shadows are P^''^"*^ 
throughout very transparent. There is a singular 
absence of white glass in the window, which might 
be considered a defect, but that the splendour of 
colour is so astonishing as to silence all adverse 

The scale of the figures is much larger than in 
the Chartres window, and the masses of colour are 
greater in proportion, but each colour is wonderfully 
varied in hue, and the transparent shadows are used 
so as to enhance these varieties, and impart an 
extraordinary glow to the whole. 

In both the earlier and later examples referred to, Great 
the brilliancy and transparency of the glass are ^ff^y ^""^ 
exhibited in their highest beauty, and no attempt is of windows 
made to imitate any natural effect. Such shading from Fle- 
as there is in these windows serves to suggest natural fence and 
forms, but is treated solely as a means of heightening Chartres, 
the beauty of the glass. In addition to light and attempt to 
shade the glass-painter has other means of adding imitate 
interest to his work and imparting texture to it by "a^ture. 
the treatment of the surface. 

There are many ways of doing this, the most 


Use of 
diapers for 
giving tex- 
ture and 
glitter to 

Stained Glass as an Q^rt 

familiar one being by the use of diapers. In some 
cases these are bold enough in scale to be appreciable 
as designs, as for instance in the background of 
a figure, but commonly they do little more than 
give texture and play of tone to the glass. 

The patterns are often picked out of a black 
ground, or may be taken out of a toned ground of 
any degree of depth or transparency (Fig. 8), either 

Fig. 8. 

giving a crisp and sparkling quality, or a gentle 
modulation to the glass. 

On white the diapers composed of white, black, 
pale tone, and yellow stain, may be very varied and 
sumptuous, conveying the impression of a rich 
brocade, or they may consist of pale flowered yellow 
patterns, which only serve to impart a delicate 
warmth to the white glass. 

(^Artistic Tossthilities in Stained Glass 41 

Sometimes simpler methods are employed .- dots, 
clear on a dark ground or dark on a clear ground, 
lines, simple or crossed, as if suggesting the threads 
of the material j or, again, the glass may be simply 
toned with the shading colour, which on white or 
a light colour will give a cool or a warm brown, 
according to the tint of the glass. This brown will 
be much less transparent than a natural brown glass, 
and its sombre quasi-opaque quality will by contrast 
increase the brilliancy of adjacent colours. 

Yellow is a dangerous colour to use in any 
quantity in stained glass. It is apt to be aggressive, 
and, in combination with other hues, to look gaudy, 
but, when deeply toned with the shading colour, it 
gives a fine solemn golden brown. 

Yellow is safe enough with greenish whites in 
grisaille, and may be used with charming results 
among blues, but mixed with purples, greens, and 
rubies, it makes the glass look sultry and over- 

It has been mentioned that flashed glass can be Use of 
bitten partly or through to the white. If the glass A^-shed 
so bitten is judiciously stained at the back, some bitten and 
brilliant effects of colour may be obtained, whether stained. 
with ruby, gold pink, or blue. 

For the purpose of obtaining a tint necessary for 'Plating' 
a particular harmony, but not forthcoming in the ^?.^^^^^ 
stock at his disposal, the glass-painter sometimes colours, 
backs one piece of glass with another of a different 
colour, trying different combinations till he has got 
the desired tint. The first piece is said to be plated 
with the other. This requires extra leading, and 
gives the window double thickness in the plated 
part j moreover, the colour is not quite so transparent 
as when a single glass is used, for which reasons 

+1 Stained Glass as an oyTrt 

it is undesirable to make a general practice of 
plating", but it is a valuable resource for occasional 

Other technical matters will have to be dealt 
with, but will be more conveniently considered in 
connexion with the third and most interesting 
division of our subject, which we are now in a 
position to take up. 






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l!£Wa SKISffl S.'i-M 

lET-U] piirj nsai 
iniAt' ,;;i>N L,(i!hif 
r<MB)i v^^ X^i 

LL that has been said about the 
nature of the material, its 
special properties and beauties, 
and the technical methods by 
which these can be developed, 
was necessary as a preliminary, 
but the matter we are now 
entering upon is the true sub- 
ject of this essay. 

It is impossible to discover 
how a material can be adapted to a particular pur- 
pose till we understand its peculiarities and the 
nature of the processes which the artist has at his 
disposal when dealing with it, I trust this has been 
made sufficiently clear, and that we have a solid 
foundation upon which to proceed with our super- 

In my unqualified condemnation of any attempt 
to imitate natural effects of colour in stained glass, 
it may seem that I to some extent anticipated this 
branch of our subject j but this is hardly the case, 
for what I showed was the impossibility, on technical 
grounds, of imitating the effects of nature in stained 
glass, and this had necessarily to be considered under 


Stained Glass as an (Lyfrt 

technique. It is true I contended that, even if 
possible, these effects would be wholly unsuitable in 
a window, but this was merely to dispose of a matter 
which would not come up again. 

As 1 shall have to illustrate this part of my 
subject by many reproductions of modern glass or 
designs for glass, I must call my readers' attention 
to my explanation in the Preface of the fact that 
these are taken from my own work. It is there 
shown that for purposes of analysis and direct 
illustration of my arguments 1 had no other course ; 
but, as examples of beautiful work of our own day, 
1 consider myself very fortunate in being able to 
offer my readers reproductions from the designs of 
Sir Edward Burne-Jones and Mr. Richmond. 

Apart from these, it would have been difficult to 
illustrate the principles 1 inculcate from the current 
work of the day. I am far from wishing to pass any 
sweeping and indiscriminate condemnation upon all 
the glass that comes from the commercial houses. 
With some of these, artists co-operate in different 
degrees, and, where this is the case, the artistic 
element naturally appears j but, as I have already 
pointed out, the bulk of the work from these 
quarters is designed by unknown employe's, trained 
to a mechanical style, and such work would certainly 
not serve as illustrations of my principles. 

oylrtistic Tossihilities of Stained Glass 



First duty 
of glass- 
painter to 
decorate a 
not to 
ignore its 
tural forms. 

ESIGN (including form and 
colour), Light and Shade, and 
Style, will form the three main 
divisions of the subject now 
before us. 

Beginning with design, the 
first all-important considera- 
tion for the glass-painter to 
keep in mind is that he has to 
decorate a window, and that, whatever beauty the 
details of his work may possess, it will fail in its 
first duty if it fights with the architectural forms 
which it should adorn. 

These forms should not merely constitute a 
mechanical limitation to his design, they should be 
a determining factor in it j and, therefore, any com- 
position which cuts across mullions and tracery of 
a window, ignoring them instead of harmonizing 
with them, is bad decoration, though it may be 
good form and colour. It will make the stonework 
appear to be an interruption to the design, instead 
of being one of its governing conditions. 

The neglect of this fundamental principle was 
one of the first marks of decadence in the cinque- 
cento work, at a time when it displayed gorgeous 
qualities of colour and effect. It was the ' Mene, cinque- 


of stained 


Stained Glass as an zyirt 

cento due 
to neglect 
of this 

cento glass 
at King's 
work, but 
early stage 
of the 

of wide- 
open space 

bility of 
ing this by 
lines in 

Mene ' which foretold the speedy collapse that 
followed. It showed that the vital spirit of the 
art was in a diseased state. Soon other and worse 
symptoms followed, and in a i^vf years the art of 
stained glass, which had enjoyed a glorious reign of 
three or four centuries, was a lifeless corpse. 

Some of the finest specimens of cinque-cento work 
in England are to be found in King's College Chapel 
at Cambridge, the windows of which are splendid 
in colour and vigorous in drawing, but exhibit this 
loss of the decorative sense, which marks the incipient 

As the aberrations of a genius, whose mind is 
just beginning to lose its true balance, excel in 
interest the correct proprieties of the most accurately 
balanced mediocrity, so does work like this surpass 
the correct but vapid imitations of early work 
produced under commercial auspices ; but the aber- 
ration is there, and with so unmistakable a symptom 
the diagnosis is but too easy, the end is near. 

Let us examine this matter a little in detail. The 
simplest case is that of a broad oblong, or arched, 
window, without divisions, such as are found in 
churches, &c., built on the classic or Italian models. 
Here the limitations are slight, and if the artist 
maintains a judicious proportion between the scale 
of his figures and that of the building, he may allow 
himself considerable freedom in his design ; but if 
the window be very large he will want stout iron 
stanchions and saddlebars, and it would be desirable, 
if possible, to make these a basis for some leading 
lines in the design, so as to assist the impression of 
strength and stability in the glazing, and to be to 
the eye a substitute for the mullions of the divided 



of design 
founded on 

This principle naturally applies to any very broad 
window, whether square or pointed, and it may be 
useful to give examples of how it can be carried out. 

Fig. 9 is from a window, nine feet broad, which Examples 
required two strong 
stanchions and twelve 
saddlebars. These have 
been taken as a basis 
for the main divisions 
of the architectural fea- 
tures in the design, with 
which they thus become 
incorporated. Fig. 3 3 
is a larger reproduction 
of the same design 
from the chalk cartoon, 
which will be referred 
to in connexion with 
the subject of light and 
shade, but this small 
illustration taken from 
the coloured sketch 
gives a much truer im- 
pression of the effect 
glass, because it 

Fig. >). 

From small coloured sketch for window 

in Philadelphia. 

{Height 13//. S in.) 


shows the bars, the leads, and the relative tones of 
the different colours, though not the colours them- 

Fig. 10 is from a window in Salisbury Cathedral, 
in which each light is twenty-one feet high and five 
feet broad. This print is taken direct from the 
glass itself. Again here, the architectural features, 
the groupings of the figures, and the grisaille orna- 
ment, are all composed with direct reference to the 
iron-work, so as to include this in the design. 



Stained Glass as an o^rt 

Fig. 10. 

In S.iide of nave of Salisbury Cathedral. From Ihe glass, [Heigh! 21ft.) 




in Fig. 1 1 the same 
principle is applied, 
but in a totally dif- 
ferent manner, the 
treatment having more 
resemblance to that 
which prevailed in the 
thirteenth century, as 
exemplified in the 
Chartres window. 
That is to say, the 
iron-work is designed 
to suit the divisions of 
the subject. 

The theme given for 
this window, which is 
in a church in New 
York, was simply 
' Love.' In the lower 
panel are presented 
' Faith, Hope, and 
Love,' with the fami- 
liar attributes, ' Love ' 
being enthroned in the 
centre as ' the greatest 
of these,' but 1 desired 
in the upper part to 
convey two leading- 
ideas : first, that ' God 
is Love J ' second, that 
Love is the root of 
both Faith and Hope. 
With this view, Christ, 
as Love incarnate, is 
made the dominant 


Example of 
into sub- 
jects by 

Fig. II. 

In the Brick Church, New Vork. From small coloured 
sketch. {Height about 22 ft.) 

fo Stained Glass as an oylrt 

subject of the design, and is surrounded by adoring 
angels, cherubs, and seraphs, while on either side of 
His throne are inscribed the words, 'God is Love, 
and he that dwelleth in Love dwelleth in God and 
God in him.' To enforce the second point two 
subjects are given illustrating the words, ' Love 
helieveth all things,' and 'Love hopeth all things.' 
Abraham, inspired to make the supreme sacrifice by 
the Faith which is begotten of his love to God j 
and the three young victims of the Babylonian 
despot's tyranny, filled with Hope in the hour of 
peril by the Love that ' casteth out fear.' 

A third subject exhibits Love absolute, Stephen 
pleading for his murderers, the highest expression 
of the most exalted human love, illustrating the 
words, ' Love beareth all things.' 

I wished also to put children in closest proximity 
to the throne of Christ, and to show the Dove, 
symbol of the Divine Spirit of Love and Peace, 
surmounting the whole. 

To convey all this in an oblong window involved 

a somewhat complex composition, and it appeared 

that the problem presented by my self-imposed 

conditions would be best solved by designing the 

iron-work with a special view to the most expressive 

grouping of the parts of my theme. The illustration 

will show how this was done, and it will be noticed 

that St. John and St. Paul, whose words form the 

leading motive of the whole design, are included in 

it at the base. 

Example of Another and simpler instance of iron-work specially 

subject constructed to a design is given in Fig. 1 2, an outline 

i/!!^^„ !?- from a window in a children's hospital, in which the 

with border, prmcipal subjects (Christ healmg a sick child, and 

angels carrying children) are framed by the iron- work 



in a broad border, wherein children appear among 
the twinings of a flowing poppy pattern, the poppy 
being a familiar healing- 

I shall have presently 
to call attention to some 
groups of angels which 
appear with some modifi- 
cations in three of these 
windows, as they will illus- 
trate another point in con- 
nexion with the question 
of design. 

The circular window 
(Fig. 13) is ten feet in 
diameter, and is in the 
chapel of a Theological 
College in New Jersey. 
The subject given was 
simply ' Theology,' and, as 
in the case of ' Love,' the 
comprehensiveness of the 
theme demanded some com- 
plexity of treatment. The 
largeness of the opening 
also necessitated the use of much stout iron-work, 
and this supplied the means of dividing the subject 
into its parts. 

Taking theology to mean the study of God's Analysis of 
ways, so far as these are accessible to the finite treatment. 
spiritual and intellectual faculties of man, my first 
desire was to express the universality of the thing- 
symbolized, and its domination over all other know- 
ledge. Theology is therefore represented as en- 
throned on a sphere representing the universe j 

E 1 




work in 





Fig. 12. 

In Children s Hospital, ToroiUo, Canada. 
{Height lift-) 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 

seraphs bow before the mysteries she teaches, and 
across this central division are inscribed the words, 
' As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are 
My ways higher than your ways.' 

Fig. 13. 

In Theological College, New Jersey. From fjtll-sized coloured cartoon, 
{Diameter to/l.) 

In the lower panel Humility leads a child, with 
the words, 'He shall teach the humble His ways.' 
On either side are History and Philosophy, Science 
and Art. 

History has a prominent place, because through it 
we learn God's dealings with man, and all the best 

"Design t? 

that the seers have been able to divine and tell us. 
Whether we go to Moses or Isaiah, to Paul or John, 
to Plato, Marcus Aurelius, or Epictetus, or to the 
Teacher who is greater than any of these, History 
has handed down their words to us. 

Possibly some may consider Science out of place Theology 
here, as it is not uncommon to hear Theology and ^^ 
Science treated as if they were antagonistic to each 
other. But only a narrow view of either can account 
for this way of regarding them. Science may limit 
itself to the study of the material universe ; it may 
deal with phenomena only, and by increasing the 
extent and accuracy of our knowledge with respect 
to these, may enable us to relate them to each other 
and elevate our conception of them as parts of 
a marvellous whole, but it can account for none 
of them. Since Newton established the law of 
gravitation as spanning the vast interstellar spaces, 
and binding under its potent sway the mightiest 
suns and the minutest grains of meteoric dust, since he 
showed how this mysterious force determines alike 
the rhythmic revolutions of the heavenly bodies and 
the fall of the ripe apple, we have been able to 
realize the unbroken unity of the universe in its in- 
finite extension through all space. Since Darwin and 
Spencer established the law of evolution as determin- 
ing with ceaseless certainty of operation the growth 
alike of solar systems and crystals, of nations and 
animalcule, we have been able to realize the 
unbroken continuity of the history of the universe 
in its duration through all time j but they have not 
shown whence originated Gravitation or Evolution. 

The Spirit alone can discern the Spirit. 

' Through Faith we understand that the worlds 
were framed by the Word of God.' 


Stained Glass as an (^yfrt 

of decora- 
tive over 
art in pre- 
of 'Ideas/ 

' We Hope for that we see not.' 

'Love is of God, and every one that loveth is 
born of God and knoweth God.' 

By these then, Faith, Hope, and Love, we under- 
stand, we see, we know, and these are exalted above 
History, Philosophy, Science, and Art, in a scheme 
which deals with the Knowledge of God, but all 
contribute to that knowledge. 

I shall have later on to deal with the advantage 
which decorative art possesses over pictorial and 
imitative art, in the presentation of ideas^ as dis- 
tinguished from the representation of objects, but it 
may be well here to call the reader's attention to 
the fact that this treatment of ' Theology ' and that 
of ' Love ' would be impossible in a realistic picture. 

Where the element of realism is once introduced, 
the eye demands the conditions of a natural scene, 
the figures must stand in some intelligible perspective 
relation to each other, with some coherent disposition 
of light and shade. But so long as we put all 
realistic effect aside, we are free to express ideas 
without these hampering restrictions, we can place 
our figures wherever the nature of our theme or 
beauty of design may suggest, and I think it will be 
seen how profoundly interesting to the artist that 
kind of work must be which gives him such un- 
limited scope, not only in form, colour, and design, 
but also in the expression of ideas, and what 
abundant compensation it offers for the exclusion of 
that one quality, realistic colour, which is unsuited 
to his material and to the situation of his work. 

Perspective is not necessarily excluded, and in 
some subjects can hardly be dispensed with (such as 
the ' Charity,' Fig. 33), but it should always be of 
a very simple kind, keeping the figures as far as 



possible on one plane, and in my opinion those 
subjects can be treated with the happiest results in 
glass, where perspective has no place whatever. 

The reader will be able to follow up this subject 
of the treatment of wide spaces for himself, by 
noting the varieties offered in the various examples 
illustrating this essay. I have thought it best to 
let the designs of my brother artists speak for 
themselves, and only to offer reasons for details of 
treatment where I could do so with certainty and 
without presumption, but I may point out that the 
examples given of works by Sir E. Burne- Jones and 
Mr. W. B. Richmond illustrate admirably this part 
of our subject. 

We must now consider the question of design in Treatment 
relation to windows divided by stonework. It is of windows 
hard to say whether such architectural divisions in- J^ong"^" " 
crease or diminish the difficulties of the artist. To 
an imaginative artist neither the clear space nor the 
divided lights ought to be difficulties. They should 
present only a variety of opportunities. We have 
seen what occasions wide spaces offer for varied design, 
and it might appear that narrower openings, fixed in 
number and proportion, would constitute a hindrance 
and a limitation. A limitation it is, no doubt, but Limita- 
to.a decorative artist limitations are full of sugges- tionsinde- 
tion, as they are to a poet. The poet, it is true, may ^orative art 
choose his own metre and disposition of rhymes, but, supply 
having chosen them, he is limited by them, and what motives. 
openings do they not afford for beauty of diction 
and for giving point to the thoughts he utters. 

Welcoming then the architectural forms of the 
window as supplying a motive rather than a hin- 
drance to the designer of the glass, let us see in 
what spirit he should consider them. 


Stained Glass as an z^Trt 

Design for 
liglits must 
be divided 
and related 
as the 
ture is 
divided and 

of simplest 
land of 

In the first place, he must absolutely regard them 
as essential features, or determining factors in his 
composition. If the window is divided, so must 
his composition be divided, and if the parts of the 

window be related 
to each other, so 
must the parts of 
his composition be 

In some cases this 
relation will be of 
an extremely simple 
kind, as where a win- 
dow, divided into 
two or more upright 
lights, is occupied by 
a correspondingnum- 
ber of single figures 
or independent sub- 
jects j in which case 
a general agreement 
in the scale of the 
figures and of their 
position in the lights, 
as also in the orna- 
mental work of the 
intervening spaces, if 
any, will be enough 
to unite the whole. 
Fig. 14, representing Faith overcoming Evil, and 
Hope parting a dark cloud and letting the light 
through, is an example of the simplest possible form 
of divided window. Fig. i ;, which gives five other 
Virtues, is so far further developed that it includes 
panels of ornament. 

jj^- I 









1 •:%u. 


1 ' 

Fig. 14. 

In Biiigley CAtirch, Yorkshire. From black 
and white cartoon. (Figures 4/t.) 


But though the accord in form here is of a simple 
and mechanical character, this is not the case with the 
colour which, in a divided window, must strictly har- 
monize throughout. The best old glass shows that 
it was not merely designed by men who had a strong 
instinctive feeling for fine composition of colour, 


In such 
cases har- 
mony of 
colour more 
than that 
of form. 
in com- 
of early 
very sym- 

Fig. 15. 

Part of E. window of Bingley Church, Yorhshire. From small coloured sietch. 
{Heights ft. a in.) 

but exhibits remarkable ingenuity in carrying out 
their schemes. The large West window in York 
Minster, the lower lights of which (i. e. all except 
the tracery) are filled with tiers of single figures, is 
treated with absolute symmetry as regards its distri- 
bution of colour, but with such variety in detail 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 

that all sense of mechanical recurrence is avoided. 
The clerestory of St. Ouen at Rouen is a very 
striking example of the same well-directed ingenuity. 

h:m mm m 

Mi ll^Ii Ilii 

Fig. i6. 

In Church at Portland, Maine, U.S.A. From small coloured sketch. 
(^Height of centre ^/t. 9 in.) 

This case is particularly interesting because it con- 
cerns not one divided window only, but a long 
series, each containing five lights ; and the whole 


forms one complete homogeneous scheme. A singular 
feature in this composition is that in the second and 
fourth figures of each window the prevailing colour 
is blue. This gives wonderful unity to the whole 
design. * 

Where the lights of a window are not all of the 
same height the composition is naturally more elastic, 
though the materials 
may still be single 
figures or detached 
subjects. Fig. id is 
an example of this, 
where the principal 
figures are similar in 
height and position, 
but the accompanying 
angels are developed 
in the middle light 
so as to occupy the 
larger space. 

But the most im- 
portant problems pre- 
sented to the glass 
painter are those 
where one subject oc- 
cupies two or more 
lights. Keeping in 
mind the principle 
already enunciated, 
that if the window be divided but related, so 
must the composition be divided but related, it 
follows that a subject extended over two or more 
lights must consist of figures or groups of figures 
related to each other more intimately than by mere 
accordance in height and place. 


of lip;hts of 

One subject 

over two 
or more 

Fig. 17. 

In Church of the Incarnation, New York. 
From small coloured sketch, 
{Height of panel 6 ft. 6 in.) 


Stained Glass as an (lArt 

Example of 
subject in 
two lights. 

The mul- 
lion must 
not be felt 
to be an 

Fig. 1 7 will illustrate this. The subject is ' Jacob 
blessing" his children,' and it will probably be felt 
that the groups are necessary to each other, though 
they can be considered separately. Treated in this 
way the mullion is no disturbance, it is fully recog- 
nized as controlling the design. The continuity of 

Fig. 1 8. 

In Ormskirk Ckurck, Lancashire, Frovi small coloured sleetch. 
{Height of centre S/t.) 

the background has no more tendency to make the 
mullion appear to be an interruption than does the 
continuity of the panels of ornament and archi- 
tectural features in Fig. ly. The fact that the 
couch runs across the two lights might be considered 
as a breach of our principle, but it would be some- 


thing like pedantry to push it so far. Each portion 
of the couch may be considered independently, and 
the fact that they are really parts of the same only 
serves to connect them. It is in no way disfigured, 
nor the eye offended by the interruption, as is the 
case when a mullion divides a figure ; a not infre- 
quent occurrence in cinque-cento and modern work. 


E. window in chapel oj a school, near Philadelphia. From small coloured sketch. 
(Height of centre 6 ft. 6 /«.) 

I confess that the boat in 'Christ stilling the Extreme 
tempest ^ ' is more of a difficulty (Fig. 1 8). The ^^^e of 
same explanation may be given as of the couch, but a^feature 
the greater prominence of the boat, and the fact in a design 
that it does not traverse the lights horizontally, across three 
tend to make it assert itself more emphatically, and ^^S'^^^- 
though I did not feel that it actually struggled for 
pre-eminence with the architecture, I could not deny 
that it went near to do so. 

1 Ormskirk, Lancashire. 

6-L Stained Glass as an o^rt 

Example in Fig. 19, illustrating the story of Joseph, contains 
five lights, two subjects, each occupying two lights, with a single 
with two flgrui-e on a larsrer scale in the middle. 

subjects °T 1 • 1 t 

and a In c^ch pair the groups are complete as groups, 

single but not as subjects. If one of a pair is covered, 

figure. j-jje other is felt to lack something to make it 

intelligible^, while the centre fig-ure gives the key- 
note of the whole. The text which it illustrates is 
' Ye thought evil against me, but God meant it for 
good.' On the left, two of the vindictive brothers 
are dragging forward the protesting Joseph, while 
a third takes the money from the Ishmaelite mer- 
chant. On the right, the brethren stand as suppliants 
before Joseph, Benjamin being charged with stealing 
the cup which an officer takes out of his sack, while 
a scribe makes notes of the evidence. 

In the centre Joseph, as Governor of Egypt, 
stands ready to see the corn dispensed, which lies 
in sacks behind him, showing how the evil which 
the brothers contemplated was diverted to beneficial 

We must now examine some examples in which 

the conditions are more complex and give more 

scope for interesting treatment. 

Com- Here is a window (Fig. 20) in which one subject, 

plicated ' The Ascension,' extends over ten lights ^ It was 

example ot ^ecessary here to make every part of the work lead 

ject in t"en the eye to the principal figaire. The only represen- 

lights. tation of this difficult subject by an early artist that 

ever impressed me greatly was that by Giotto in the 

Arena Chapel at Padua, of which I give a small 

reproduction (Fig. 21). The upward movement of 

the figure of Christ is marvellous. He seems to 

1 See inf., Fig. 42. 

2 East window of line old church at Upliolland, near Wigan. 

Fig. 20. 

(height of CENTKF. 13 FT.) 

From black and -white cartoons. 


carry with Him the crowd of angels, as if they are 
impelled by an irresistible force. 

The conditions offered by the architecture ren- 
dered all question of plagiarism impossible, but 
I felt this was the true conception of the subject. 


The groups of the eleven Apostles and the 
Virgin presented no special difficulty, though much 
that was interesting" to treat, but the ascending 
angels offered a by no means simple problem. Each 
of the lights must be well filled, and yet the upward 
movement must be conveyed. If the design fulfils 
these requirements, the reader will be able to see 


Stained Glass as an ^-Art 

how it does so, by a little examination of the 
drawing, but it is an extreme case of uniting many 
lights in the expression of one leading idea. 
Tracery. Xhe tracery of this window, which was nearly as 

extensive as the lower lights, contained as its central 
feature a large flamboyant wheel or rose shape. In 
order to embody Christ's words, ' When 1 go I will 

Fig. 11.. 

Part of tracery in E. window of UphoUand Church, 
From black and while cartoon. 

send the Comforter unto you,' the Dove was repre- 
sented in the centre, and the <■ Fruits of the Spirit ' 
in the divisions of the wheel (Fig. 22). 

Having spent much time and thought on the 
ascending angels of this work, 1 hoped for an oppor- 
tunity of making use of them again, and found 
more than one occasion, as will have been seen in 
examples already referred to. In the subject, 

T)esign <Jt 

* Christ blessing children,' in Salisbury Cathedral, 
the two groups on either -side are united into one 
(but with some material alterations), and the angels 
all carry children ; in the Toronto window, also 
about children, the two inner groups are united 
into one. 

The principal panels of the Salisbury window 
(Fig. I o) illustrate the point we are now considering. 
It will be seen that the architectural part of it is 
only symmetrical when the two lights are taken as 
a whole, and the same may be said of the group- 
ing of the figures. The space being very large 
(twelve feet across in all) it was necessary to avoid 
anything like a scattered treatment of the figiires. 
Thus the chief group of Christ and the Apostles 
form a square mass in the centre on a small raised 
standing-ground, while women, who have brought 
their children, stand, sit, or kneel on the lower level. 
On the left, through an arch, is seen a mother who 
has gone home to fetch her child and is leading him 
down the steps j behind the corresponding arch on 
the right a workman, who knows that his wife is 
busy at home, has gone to fetch their infant, and 
is getting the mother to hand it out to him through 
the window. 

The next example differs from any of the pre- Case of one 
ceding; in this respect, that though the whole of the theme di. 

• • r' vided into 

seven lights, which go round the apse of a chancel ', ^^^„ ^^t^_ 
are devoted to the exposition of one theme, this jects, ex- 
theme is conveyed by a series of figures and subjects, tending 
no one of the latter occupying two lights -. (See °]l^l^^' 
Frontispiece.) The central idea was to be ' Praise ' j " 

' Grace Church, Utica, America. 

^ There is in fact a considerable wall-space between the lights. 


over seven 

66 Stained Glass as an oyTrt 

the lower parts of the lights being occupied with 
terrestrial beings, noted for their hymns of praise, 
the upper with celestial j Cherubim and Seraphim, 
Angels and Archangels, and the Hosts of the Re- 
deemed j Christ enthroned in the head of the middle 
light being the subject of their united ' Te Deum.' 

As there were seven lights it appeared to me 
desirable to include in the scope of the theme the 
days of Creation, and so to embody the beautiful 
hymn of the Three Children, ' O all ye Works of 
the Lord, bless ye the Lord j Praise Him and magnify 
Him for ever.' 
Analysis of The design, here reproduced on a very minute , 
design. scale, is an attempt to carry out this attractive 
scheme. Accompanying the figure of Christ, who 
holds the orb of the universe in His hand, are the 
words, ' Let the heavens rejoice and the earth be 
glad,' to give the clue to the whole series. Below 
are the spiritual singers on earth, David and Hannah, 
Miriam and Moses, and others, down to later Chris- 
tian periods, to Gregory and Catherine, Ambrose 
and Cecilia j and above are the Celestial Hierarchy. 

The six Days of Creation are given in the cinq- 
foils above the lights, the seventh, the day of rest, 
being conveyed in the centre one, by an angel, with 
the words, 'And God ended the work which He had 

Between the upper and lower tiers of worshippers 
are panels illustrating those verses of the hymn, 
' O all ye Works of the Lord,' which relate to the 
several days of creation. ' Ye Nights and Days,' 
where Night shrouded in a dark mantle cherishes 
a sleeping child, and Day casts olF a rosy garment 
like the tender clouds of dawn j ' Ye Winds of 
God,' which are spreading towards the four corners 

Design (>i 

of heaven ; ' Ye Green Things of the Earth,' en- 
twined in foliage, with fruit over her head and corn 
at her feet, while the personification of ' Showers 
and Dew,' clad only in clouds, pours water on the 
green earth ^ ' Ye Sun and Moon,' presented by 
a strong youth in golden raiment and a maiden in 
moonlight-coloured garments ; ' Seas and Floods,' 
where the tossing waves appear as living creatures, 
stretching their arms up towards heaven (Did not 
Life first come out of the waters ?) \ and finally, 
'Children of Men,' represented by a father and 
mother surrounded by their children. In the centre 
of the whole are Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, kneel- 
ing in the furnace, singing their hymn. 

It might have been convenient for some reasons Impossi- 
to defer consideration of the motives and significance ^ility ot 
of subjects in stained glass till a later part of this i°"compo- 
essay, but I find it impossible to treat the question sidon 
of composition adequately apart from motive, and apart from 
neither composition nor motive can be discussed its motive, 
without illustrations. Principles might be enun- 
ciated, but without examples they would provide 
hopelessly dry reading, and could hardly leave any 
clear impression on the mind of the reader. For 
this reason I have, in the preceding cases, described 
the ideas out of which the designs were evolved, 
and will now call attention to a few special varieties 
of composition which appear in this somewhat com- 
prehensive series. 

In the first place it contains a great many figures, Desira- 
and where this is the case it is desirable that they ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
should not all be of one scale, and equally desirable many 
that they should not be of many scales. In the one figures of 
case the eye would be fatigued by the monotony of having 
the design, it would be like a house in which all ^^^ ^^^^^ 

F i 


Stained Glass as an zyfrt 

and prefer- 
ably not 
more than 

long series 
with hori- 

tion be- 
centre and 
side lights. 

the windows were the same height from ground 
floor to attic j in the other case the eye would be 
disturbed by the instability and want of coherence 
in the design, it would be as if nearly all the 
windows of a house were of different heights. 

As a general rule two scales of figures are quite 
enough, exclusive of tracery, the small openings in 
which require quite special treatment. In these 
seven windows two scales have been adhered to, 
except in the figure of Christ, which is intended to 
dominate over the others. The rule is not followed 
mechanically, allowance having to be made for 
special conditions. For instance, the upper panels 
contain many more figures than the lower ones, 
and if these had been made exactly the same size 
the groups would have looked top heavy ; but the 
ditference is too slight to obtrude itself. 

In the second place, in so long a series it is of 
importance to bind the whole well together by the 
horizontal elements in the design. This is chiefly 
attained by the three tiers of subjects, but these 
divisions are further enforced by the rather severe 
treatment of the upper and lower series of figures, 
all of these being upright and at almost exactly 
the same level, and by the continuity throughout 
of such features as the horizontal scrolls above 
the lower figiires, with portions of their hymns, the 
screens or backgrounds behind them, and the band 
of foliage above these. 

In the third place, it was necessary to make 
a distinction between the centre light and the others, 
in order to avoid a tiresome identity extending 
through so many lights. This is done in the lower 
series by putting three figures into the panel instead 
of two, in the middle by making the mouth of the 

T)esign 6p 

furnace circular to distinguish it from the square 
forms enclosing the other groups in this set, and, 
finally, by the increased scale and isolation of the 
figure of Christ. The small cherubs serve not only 
to fill the space, but to add to the importance of the 
chief figure. 

Finally, the whole had to be knit together by 
coherence in the scheme of colour. 

In the middle band the colour separates itself Colour 
from those above and below by the prevalent lieht ^'^.^s 

, , J , . , ■' ^ ■ ^, window. 

blues and greens, which were appropriate to the oistinc- 
subjects. The middle panel, however, distinguishes tion be- 
itself, as in form so in colour, by the light flesh tween 
colour and the ruby flames, the only blue being the "q^^J!' ^^^ 
film of 'moist whistling wind,' described in the middle 
Apocrypha as enveloping the bodies of the youths bands, and 
and preserving them from contact with the flames. between 

This quality of colour, the light blues and greens, sides. 
is repeated in the days of creation in the cinqfoils, 
though in somewhat deeper tones. 

In the celestial groups the more brilliant primary Prevalence 
colours prevail, the backgrounds beina' alternately of primary 
blue and ruby. In the centre, where the ground is upper band 
blue, the robe of Christ and the wings of the 
cherubs are ruby. In the adjoining lights, where 
the ground is ruby, the wings of the seraphs are 
varied blues. 

In the lower series, quieter colours predominate: of quieter 
browns and brownish purples, deep olive and lie'ht J^^^o"*"^ ^" 

li i- f L o lower D3.nci 

greyish greens, low-toned brown golds, &c. T'he disposed ' 
screens behind the figures are alternately brown and with ap- 
ruby, but very little of these is seen ; the foliage is proximate 
in sober greens, and the borders in very quiet tints, ^y™'"^ '"J'* 
These colours are distributed with scrupulous care, 
some recurring only twice, some three times, and 


Stained Glass as an <z^rt 

Beauty of 
bJue glass. 

of treating 

with im- 

precis of 
design to 
show the 
motive of 
the leading 

one, the deep blue, four times, and are disposed 
with a general but not absolute symmetry. 

Blue is perhaps the most valuable colour in glass, 
and the one which may most safely be allowed to 
prevail as a general rule, though no absolute laws 
can be laid down on such a subject. It certainly 
takes the lead in much early glass, being commonly 
alternated with ruby in backgrounds, as in the 
Chartres window, but in this the spaces filled with 
blue are much the larger. Where warm colours 
prevail they tend to make the light in a building 
hot and close in colour. Blue, qualified by other 
colours, tones the light, but keeps it cool. 

It is, however, a difficult colour to treat. If the 
work on it is not made exceptionally crisp and 
vigorous, blue is apt to look too smooth and round. 
It has, when used in any considerable masses, to be 
much broken up and varied in tint, but, when 
judiciously treated, effects of great beauty can be 
obtained with it. 

I must cite one more example of a divided window 
by way of saying a few words about tracery. 

In this design (Fig. 23) for the east window of the 
Church of the Epiphany in Washington, the subject 
is suggested by the dedication of the church. I'he 
di\'ision of the subject into three parts in the lower 
lights is rendered natural and perfectly simple by 
the compound nature of the theme, but it may be 
noticed how the three distinct groups evidently 
belong to each other, and how certain lines run 
through the whole, uniting the lower lights with 
the tracery. Here is a precis of the design (Fig. 24) 
reduced to its simplest elements and divested of all 
detail, so as to bring into prominence the motive of 
the composition only. In this reduction it is made 

Fig. 23. 

(HEIGHT 18 FT.) 

From small coloured skelch. 




clear that the figures in the lower lights all circle 
round the central group, but the lines of the figures 
point towards and through the ring of angels above, 
whose lines unite with these and lead the eye of the 
mind higher still. Thus, while the encircling groups 
below concentrate 
the attention on the 
Infant Christ, the 
lines point upward 
to the Divine Spirit 
of Peace and Good- 
will hymned by the 
heavenly host above, 
which the birth of 
the Infant was to 

It has taken long 
for the world to 
learn the lesson 
which He taught, 
and for which He 
died, and for which 
His immediate fol- 
lowers lived and 

While I write the 
Christian nations of 
Europe are all armed 
to the teeth, and looking on at the most ghastly 
barbarities which have disgraced the history of 
mankind, and not one will stir a finger to save their 
fellow-creatures from these cruel tortures, or to 
rescue women and girls from the foulest outrages, 
because each fears lest one of his neighbours might 
gain some territorial advantage by its interference. 

to the 
idea, 'Peace 
on earth, 

Slowness of 
to learn 
this lesson, 

Fig. 14.. 

E. window, Church of Epiphany, Washington. 





Stained Glass as an oyTrt 

The magnificent armies of splendidly drilled and 
equipped millions, which impoverish the nations that 
have to pay for them, are impotent to rescue one 
victim of a savage and triumphant despot, impotent 
for anything humane 5 powerful only to slaughter 
each other over questions incapable of solution 
except by an international tribunal. 

There is another thing that the civilized Christian 
world is agreed about, and that is that the work of 
the world, by which we extract from the fertile 
earth and shape to our use all that we need for our 
sustenance and our comfort, shall be conducted on the 
principle of '• Every man for himself, and the Devil 
take the hindmost.' The battle is to the strong, 
to the strong in purse and in sharpness of wits ; 
these become the rich and highly favoured, while 
the weak are trampled down by our Christian system 
into that terrible poisonous swamp of destitution, 
squalor, and ignorance, which keeps every civilized 
community constantly supplied with criminals to 
hang and imprison. The great rule, ' Love thy 
neighbour as thyself,' does very well for Sunday, 
when there is no money to be made, but on Monday 
the Gospel of Christ must be shut up and the 
gospel of competition for profit brought in by 
practical men for six days, in which the golden rule 
with regard to our neighbour is to get out of him 
all we can, and if our neighbour be a workman, and 
competition wages do not leave him anything for 
his old age, he can go to the workhouse. 

So far ' Peace on earth and goodwill towards 
men ' appear to have made but little progress in 
growing; up eighteen centuries, but happily governments and 
and will Systems are more responsible than individuals, 
prevail. While goverimients allow savagery to wreak its fury 

Signs that 
a better 
spirit is 

Design 73 

for months on defenceless victims, on the ground 
that if one made a humane effort others would fly 
at her throat, peoples are sickening with horror and 
shame j while an industrial system compels every 
man to look out for himself if he would not be 
crushed in the struggle for profit, individuals are 
supporting charitable institutions by the thousand, 
and however perverse may be the method which 
robs men of their honourably earned fair share of 
the product of their toil, in order to dole it out to 
them afterwards in demoralizing and humiliating 
alms, yet the scale on which charities are conducted 
shows that altruism is not dead, nay, is more alive 
perhaps than at any former period. 

Not only do many individuals deplore the wicked- Growing 
ness of international war, of settling differences of horror at 

the wiCKeci— 

opinion between nations by brutal and senseless ness of war. 
slaughter, which settles nothing, and only leaves 
hatred and thirst for revenge behind, but serious 
efforts are made in all directions to establish methods 
consonant with peace and goodwill, in place of those 
which foster war and hatred. 

Not only do many mourn over the sin of social Earnest 
war — of fighting one's neighbours for one's personal ^^^^^^ ^° 
profit, instead of working with them as brothers for )^^^^^^ 
the good and happiness of all, but on all sides men foundation 
are deeply studying the great human problem how for our 
to base the work of the world upon methods born g"'^^g^j^"^^ 
of that Spirit whose fruits are love, joy, and peace, than selfish 
and to rid ourselves of a system whose fruits are personal 
shoddy, adulteration and jerry-building, selfishness, S^^"- 
greed and snobbery, idle wealth and sordid penury, 
luxurious debauchery and squalid crime. On the 
one hand, bodies and souls, stunted and withered 
by the cankerworm of grinding care j on the other. 


Stained Glass as an zyfrt 

The truest 
art cannot 
be sepa- 
rated from 
the best 
of man. 

impudent swindlers, flaunting the wealth which 
they have amassed by the wholesale ruin of honest 

To look on the outside of society it would seem 
that spoken words or pictured images, which tell of 
peace where there is no peace, and of goodwill where 
selfishness reigns supreme, can be but mockery. But 
selfishness, though it reigns unchecked in the market, 
has not yet destroyed the heart of man, and this 
will sooner or later (God grant that it may be soon) 
overthrow the tyrannical profit-system which con- 
trols and thwarts its better desires and makes our 
daily work an engine of the Devil, Mammon. 

Is this a digression? To those who look upon 
art as an empty show, and composition as a lifeless 
system of academic rules, it may be. To those who 
regard art as the expression of the best that is in us, 
and composition but as a means towards the fuller 
expression of that best, these reflections go straight 
to the heart of our subject. 

I have said that composition cannot be separated 
from motive, neither can motive be separated from 
the great purpose of life which must underlie all 
work that is worth doing. 

Light and Shade 



■ J^tM »^^^R 








HE point which we have now 
reached is of great practical 
importance, and it may be well 
to recall the conclusions at 
which we have already arrived 
and which lead us to it. We 
have seen that, as transparency 
is the characteristic and dis- 
tinctive quality of our material, 
it is this which we must preserve and develop. 
We have noted the difference between light and 
deep colours, and how lines and tones may be 
employed to enhance their brilliancy and to har- 
monize them with each other ; but so far the 
question has been only considered in its technical 
aspect. We have now to take it up in relation to 
the situation and purpose of the work. This matter 
may be regarded from two points of view : first, the 
lines and tones should add interest to the design as 
a representation of figures, draperies, foliage, &c., 
and as conveying a subject j second, they should 
enhance the beauty of the material, and of the work 
as a piece of decoration. 

But although we may consider these two aspects 
separately for analytical purposes, they should never 
be dissociated in the mind of the artist. The mate- 
rial and the situation of the work as a transparent 

Light and 
shade may 
the interest 
of details, 
or the 
beauty of 
the whole. 
These two 
tions must 
always go 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 

Light and 
shade as 
means of 
ties of 
light and 
shade un- 
limited in 

But limits 
to their use 
very im- 

of light 
and shade 

window should never be absent from his mind, and 
the necessity for giving interest to the details of 
his subject should be to him but so many oppor- 
tunities for developing the charm of the glass and 
increasing the decorative beauty of his work. 

The immense value in stained glass of form in its 
contours has been insisted on, but here we have to 
deal with the inner forms within the contours, such 
as can only be expressed by light and shade. 

There are many forms within the extreme outlines 
of figiires and other objects which can be conveyed 
by lines, such as features, folds of drapery, &c., but 
these lines are still outlines — the outlines of eye or 
mouth, of fold and crease, which have to be given 
with or without shadows, but the majority of the 
inner forms can only be expressed by 'modelling,' 
i. e. by light and shade. 

The question now before us is how far should 
these forms be realized in glass painting, keeping 
always in view the decorative purpose of the work ? 

It will be remembered that there is no limit to 
our possibilities in this direction in glass. The 
contrasts of light and shade attainable in a picture 
can be greatly excelled in glass, and the delicacy 
of gradation can be equalled. Shall we then make 
full use of these powers, or should we by doing 
so mar the technical and decorative beauty of 
our work? 

In my opinion we should^ by adopting this course, 
wholly mar the beauties peculiar to stained glass, 
and I may say we should lose the most precious 
beauties, even of pictorial art, by a similar attempt. 
The greatest painters have never sought to emulate 
the contrasts of nature in mere light and dark, 
because to have done so would have been to sacrifice 

Light and Shade 77 

colour. In a picture by Paul Veronese, both lights seldom 
and shadows glow with colour. Inferior men, who sought by 
have struggled after an extreme range of dark and ^^^"^ ^^^' 
light, have only succeeded in getting black shadows 
and chalky lights, neither of which have any resem- 
blance to nature. 

It might indeed be plausibly urged that since Plausible 
powerful contrasts can be obtained in glass without ^j""^'^"^^*^" 
sacrificing colour (which is perfectly true), here is capacity 
the proper place for seeking such effects, and in for depth 
a measure the contention is just, so long as the con- ^^'^'^^"^ 
trasts are sought only for their decorative value. shouldTe 

The subject has been partly discussed in dealing utilized for 
with technique, where realistic colour was shown to effects of 
be impossible in stained glass, and this consideration ^hiaro- 
gives the true ground for avoiding realistic light objection 
and shade. If the mind of the spectator is once that this 
entrapped into a false position by attempts at pic- would lead 
torial realism in the glass, he will misread the whole expectation 
work. and put 

If he gets realism in one form he will expect it spectator 
in another. If the light and shade are wrought to °" wrong 
the fulness of natural light and shade, then the eye 
will demand that the colour shall be wrought to the 
fulness of natural colour. Misled by the raising of 
false expectations, instead of enjoying the beauties 
peculiar to the work and unattainable in other arts, 
it will be dissatisfied with the manifest failure to 
make good its false pretensions, the leads and bars 
will be felt to be disfigurements and eyesores, and 
the whole will be regarded as a poor attempt to 
imitate something else, when it ought to awaken 
admiration for its attainment of beauties beyond 
the reach of other forms of art. 

What limits then are to be observed ? Light and 


Where then 
is the line 
to be 
drawn ? 

A principle 
wanted, not 
an arbitrary 

of natural 
forms by 
light and 
shade in- 


of treating 
these to 
beauty of 
the glass. 

ance of the 
amount of 
light and 
shade if 
this prin- 
ciple be 

Stained Glass as an o^rt 

shade must have some resemblance to nature if it is 
to add interest to representations of figures, draperies, 
&c., and who is to determine just how far this 
resemblance is to be carried j wherever the line is 
drawn, must it not be somewhat arbitrary ? 

Happily no line need be drawn, arbitrary or 
otherwise, but a principle may be established, which 
every designer may apply, while giving full play to 
his own predilections. 

It has been shown that tones and lines do enhance 
the brilliancy of glass, which looks bald without 
them, and it can hardly be contested that these lines 
and tones will be more interesting, and will have 
more point and meaning", if they resemble something 
than if they resemble nothings not only so, but 
they will ha^-e more beauty to the eye. In fact, if 
our design includes a subject with figures, we have 
no choice. If our glass be cut and the outlines 
drawn so as to represent tigxires, clearly any light 
and shade on these must bear relation to the natural 

Accepting this as our starting-point, the principle 
which will guide us is simple, and consists merely 
in the application of our fundamental rule. I'he 
artist must keep the material and its situation 
in mind, and must treat his light and shade with 
the express object of enhancing the beauty of the 

If he keeps this aim steadily in view, he need not 
be afraid of realism in the details of his light and 
shade. He may put little or much, as his imagina- 
tion may incline him j it will not matter, so long as 
the decorative beauty of his work is his inspiring 
motive. He will find in each part of his subject 
some fresh opportunity of promoting that upon 


Light and Shade 79 

which he has set his heart, and he will see that it is 
not the amount of realism that is important, but the 
spirit in which it is introduced. 

This will be evident if we examine old glass. In No realism 
very early work the question would not offer itself, ip my _ 
Nothing that could be called realism of natural *°^j.'j^°rt 
effect had been attained then in any kind of painting, 
and the modelling of limbs and draperies in glass 
differed little from that in the frescoes or other 
paintings of the time. But this will not affect our 
appreciation of their glass painting as bearing on 
what has become a problem to us. In the Chartres 
window (Figs. 2 to y) it is clear that the shading- is 
all realistic so far as it goes, and is very expressive 
of natural forms, while it all adds to the interest 
and to the decorative beauty of the work. With 
the advance of technical power the realism was 
further developed, but always strictly as a means to 
an end. 

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, after Incipient 
the discovery of the yellow stain, when white glass Realism m 
was much more freely used, the interest and charm fourteenth 
of surface of the glass was greatly promoted by and 
realism of detail. The jewels and embroidery on fifteenth 
a mitre, or on the orfrays of a cope or chasuble, '^^'^ ""'^^' 
were represented with minute accuracy, contributing 
immensely to the glitter and sparkle of the work. 
White canopies were treated in perspective, with 
delicate shading of their carved shafts, mouldings, 
crockets, and finials, giving a beautiful silvery 
quality to the glass. 

In the Chapel of New College, Oxford, there are Fine ex- 
some noble specimens of fifteenth-century glass, i^'^Pjes 
with large scale figures under canopies, in which Colleo-e 
a considerable amount of realism is employed with Oxford. 


Stained Glass as an (^Art 

realism in 
the same 

Sir Joshua 
window in 
the same 
Curious in- 
stance of 
refined de- 
sign with 
wholly false 

splendid decorative results. This glass is in the 

I believe it was turned out of the chapel to make 
room for some degraded late work, in which a lot 
of blousy, gaudy hgtires, with pink cheeks, stand 
under heavily and clumsily painted canopies. In 
looking at these profanations of William of Wyke- 
ham's beautiful chapel, we see at once that the 
painter never troubled his head about the beauty 
of the glass. He loaded the shadows on one side 
of his canopies to make them ' stand out ' ; that was 
all he cared about. The realism was sought for its 
own sake, and it is all vulgar. In the ante-chapel 
the realism is employed as a means of enhancing the 
beauty of the work, and it is all exquisite. 

In this same ante-chapel is a large west window, 
designed by a great and refined painter, Sir Joshua 
Reynolds. It forms a singular contrast both to the 
early glass on either side of it and to the atrocities 
in the chapel. This window contains tender and 
beautiful figures, charming in feeling and design, 
but as glass it is a hopeless failure, and no less so as 
decoration. The figures are painted on square panes 
in enamel colours, and in the subject of the Nativity, 
which forms the centre of the design, the principal 
group is relieved upon a dark ground with a great 
deal of cloud. There is neither glow nor glitter in 
the whole, and the large mass of smoky background 
is sadly depressing. 

In the windows of the chapel the traditions of the 
old art of stained glass are seen to be still lingering 
on, but are vulgarized in the hands of a tasteless 
painter j the spirit of the old work having quite 
died out. 

In the west window we see that the tradition and 

Light and Shade 8i 

spirit had wholly vanished — that the decorative Proofof 
sense was gone ; so that when a painter like Sir *o!^^l "^^"^^y 
Joshua undertook to design a window, he had no ^^^^ stwst. 
other idea of what to do than to paint a picture 
and send it to a glass-painter to copy on to glass. 
It is satisfactory to know that Sir Joshua was wholly 
disappointed with the result. The cartoons for 
this work are charming; the window is a colossal 

To an artist the principle given above ought to Sufficiency 
be abundantly sufficient to gaiide him to a true use oftheabovc 
of his technical opportunities. If, having made fj^""^^ 
a design which decorates his window and gives an artist. 
impressive rendering of his subject, he seeks by his 
workmanship to increase the decorative beauty of 
the glass and of the design, he will not go wrong. 
If he aims at making his glass look like a picture, 
he cannot go right. He will destroy all chance of 
making a good window, and can only achieve a very 
bad picture. 

But though this principle may be sufficient for Necessity 
the artist, the outsider may want something rather of further 
more definite, something that will show to what ^^^ "^^ °^^_ 
general results the application of this principle sider. 
would lead. I will endeavour to work the subject 
out a little and illustrate it by examples. 

The first broad distinction that may be noted Distinction 
between the liffht and shade in good stained glass between 
and that in good pictorial work, is that in the former ^^^^ j^_ 
only so much is employed as is necessary to convey .torial light 
a sense of form in the individual objects, and very and shade. 
little suffices for this ; in the latter much more is 
demanded, atmosphere and chiaroscuro (that is to 
say, large divisions of light and shadow). These 
qualities are wholly unnecessary for conveying the 


Stained Glass as an (^Art 

glass and 
in light 
and shade. 

Both deal 
with a 

Beauty of 
possible m 
both with 

forms of separate objects, but cannot be dispensed 
with where it is intended to realize natural effects as 
a whole. The absolute impracticability of realizing 
such effects in glass was shown in dealing with the 
technical possibilities of the material, and any 
attempt to represent them approximately can only 
satisfy those who are wholly ignorant of their real 
beauty, while it will involve the sacrifice of all those 
jewelled and glittering qualities, so precious in glass, 
which have no resemblance to the light and shade 
of a natural scene. 

An analogy has already been mentioned as existing 
between stained glass and bas-relief in relation to 
colour, and it is observable also in relation to light 
and shade. 

The extreme dissimilarity of the materials renders 
this analogy the more striking and the less likely 
to mislead. The point in common as regards colour 
is that it cannot be realistic in either art, and is 
only employed for decorative purposes. 

The point in common as regards light and shade 
is that in both materials the design lies on a single 
plane. In the relief any large masses of tone are 
impossible, in the glass they are possible, but in 
a window any appearance of retiring planes is 
eminently unsuitable, and the tones, inseparable 
from such groupings in nature, are incompatible 
with the characteristic beauties of the material. 
The single plane, which should not be lost sight 
of, demands therefore that simplicity of light and 
shade in a glass window which is inevitable in the 

Another point of resemblance is that in the low 
relief the intellectual interest of the work is im- 
measurably increased by beauty of modelling in the 

Light and Shade 


details, and yet the slightness of the projections very simple 
gives very little light and shade. The same is true ^ig^^t ^"^1 
in glass painting. Slight depths of tone are sufficient ^ 
to give that intellectual interest to the details which 
is wanting in the flat treatment of the windows at 
Pisa, and this slight depth of shading is equally 
valuable in adding to the charm of texture and 
glitter in the glass. 

Here is a portion of the frieze which runs all Pan- 
round the upper part of the cella of the Parthenon ^thenaic 
(Fig. 2f). This frieze is universally admitted to be fJom\he 





Fig. If. 

one of the most perfect pieces of decorative work in 
the world. There is no attempt in it to realize any 
natural eifect, but it is full of life, of character, and 
of exquisite truth to nature in detail. 

Processions of old men and young virgins, priests Perfection 
bringing oxen and sheep to sacrifice, young men in °.*^ ^xecu- 
chariots and others on horseback ; all and each are jg^^jj ^^j 
as beautiful in detail and consummate in execution of decora- 
as they are admirable in design and perfect for their ^^"^^ beauty. 
decorative purpose, when considered as groups or 
as a whole. 

Different planes are implied, but they are not 

G i 


Stained Glass as an (lArt 

planes im- 
plied, not 

of great 
freedom of 
when the 
is well 
of strict 
to the prt - 

represented. In the group of horsemen here given 
it will be seen that the horses are one behind 
another, and an examination of a sufficient length 
of the frieze will show that they are in ranks of 
seven. The horseman on the left in the illustra-' 
tion is at the near end of such a rank, while behind 
him to the right are seen five of the next rank 
and the forelegs of a sixth horse, each partly con- 
cealed by his next neighbour. The seventh or 
nearest one of this rank is in the next slab, and 
is wholly displayed. A distance of about twenty-five 
feet may be inferred between the youth and horse 
on the left and the pair that they partly conceal, 
but both are the same size, and the entire depth 
is conveyed in a relief nowhere exceeding an inch 
and a half. 

It will be readily understood from this example 
how distinct are truth of detail and beauty of detail 
from realism of natural effects ; and how slight 
a relief, and therefore what simple light and shade, 
are sufficient to express this beauty of detail. 

Here, then, we have in a nutshell what will serve 
as a safe guide in a decorative art which affords 
unlimited scope in form and none whatever in 
natural effects. But when we have once thoroughly 
assimilated this principle, we may allow ourselves 
great freedom in its application. 

I will give first a few illustrations in which not 
only the spirit but the letter of the above precept 
is observed, and I shall neglect all pedantic adher- 
ence to those broad divisions of my subject which 
I found convenient for general purposes, by noting 
points concerning" design and colour which can be 
more effectively considered here than at an earlier 
stage of our inquiry. 

Fig. 26. 












(height of centre about 21 FT.") 

From small coloityed sketch. 

Light and Shade 


Fig. zy. 

Panels Jrom W. window, St. Saviours, Sonthwark. 
From black and white cartoon. 

%6 Stained Glass as an o^rt 


West win- Fig. 2 (J is from the coloured sketch for the west 
dow, St. window of St. Saviour's, Southwark, where the com- 
mittee, having asked for a design of the ' Creation,' 
settled on an adaptation of the scheme for Utica 
already described. Fig. 27 gives larger scale repro- 
ductions of some of the uncoloured cartoons for 
the same work. 

The sketch gives the better impression of the 
appearance of the glass, so far as this can be 
conveyed in monochrome, but the cartoons, owing 
to the absence of the tones which represent colour, 
are better adapted for showing the amount of light 
and shade in the work. 

It will be seen how little there is of this, and that 
there is no attempt whatever to realize natural 
effects, whether of perspective or masses of shadow. 
All is on one plane, and the shading is only what 
is necessary to gi^'e interest to the forms in detail 
and charm to the quality of the glass. Take, for 
instance, the figure of ' Day ' throwing olf the rosy 
clouds of dawn. As far as the subject goes, she 
might as well have had no drapery, but I wished 
Day to be glowing and golden in colour, so I gave 
her an ideal garment, which aiforded an opportunity 
for the desired colour and did not disturb the 
sentiment of the subject. If this figure had been 
treated in outlines only, it would have looked bald 
and flat. The very slight and transparent shadows 
serve to make the lights gleam, to give variety of 
surface to the glass, and to express the form. The 
window is at a great height, and is mostly seen at 
a great distance. Under these circumstances even 
thick lines on a bright colour would disappear while 
these transparent tones tell from the end of the 
church. The words interspersed among the figures 

Light and Shade 




From small coloured sketch for the Cavendish memorial window i 
St. Margaret's, Wettminster. {Height 16 ft.) 


Stained Glass as an (^Art 

appear dark in the cartoons, but light among their 
adjoining colours. 

Letters are often A^aluable in decoration, and were 
freely used in early work. Whether they are black 
on white scrolls, or picked out of a dark ground (as in 
this case), they give opportunities for glitter in the 
colour and for lines in the design, beside their ob^'ious 
use in giving a clue to the motive of a subject. 
Cavendish Fig. 28 is from the chalk cartoons for part of 
window, j]-,g memorial to Lord Frederick Ca^^endish, in 

St A4ar- 

o^aret's ' ^^- ^i'^rg^ret's, Westminster. The coloured sketch is 
West-' also given to show the relative tones (Fig. 29). 
minster. This design forms a complete contrast to the last 

ni many respects. In the Hrst place, the window is 
near the eye and the figures are large, so that a far 
greater degree of finish is necessary in each figure. 
In the second place, the scheme consists of a series 
of subjects, not of allegorical figures or groups 
like the last, and these involve a somewhat more 
naturalistic treatment than such themes as the 
Winds, Nights and Days, &c. But the same principle 
underlies the four compositions. All are on one 
plane, there is neither perspective nor chiaroscuro, 
and the light and shade are only what is necessary 
to make the form interesting, although the largeness 
of scale and depth of most of the colours required 
a somewhat bolder treatment of shadows than was 
called for in the small figures. 

Fig. 3 o is taken from the cartoon for the central 
part of the Washington window described above ^ 
Being divested of the contrasts arising from colour, 
it will serve to show what simple light and shade 
suihce to express form and to de\'elop the character- 
istic qualities of the material. 

^ See Fig. 13. 

Fig. 30. 

Pajiel from £. window of Church of Epiphany, Washington, 
white cartoon. (Height c^ft. 9 in.) 

From blacli and 

Stained Glass as an o^rt 

worth win- 

of freer 

One more instance of a severe adherence to the 
fundamental principle will suffice. Fig. 31 differs 
from the preceding illustrations in consisting neither 
of subjects like the last two, nor of small panels 
containing allegorical groups, like the St. Saviour's 
window, but of a design of figures running con- 
tinuously through the two lights. The absence of 
draperies involves also considerable simplicity of 
colour, and this is emphasised, not qualified, by the 
treatment of the details. The background and 
wings are blue, and the foliage green. With the 
exception of the nimbuses, there is no other colour 
in the window but the flesh colour of the children 
and the varied browns of their hair. 

In these four examples there is no departure from 
the strictest interpretation of the principle which 
prescribes the avoidance of realistic natural effects, 
other than such simple light and shade as will add 
interest to details and charm to the material. 

I will cite two or three now in which there is 
a slight departure from the letter of the decorative 
law I am advocating, but not, 1 venture to think, 
from its spirit. When the spirit of a principle is so 
completely imbibed that its operation is automatic, 
rules may be dispensed with, and the greatest free- 
dom may be allowed. It is like the difference 
between a man whose words and actions are dictated 
by a natural courtesy and delicacy, and one whose 
conduct is formed by strict adherence to the rules 
in a manual of etiquette. Let us hope that in social 
life there is no such monstrosity, but unfortunately 
its equivalent in art is common — at least in com- 
mercial art. 

It has been mentioned (for the point is too obvious 
to need argument) that although imitative realistic 

Light and Shade 


Fig. 31. 

Memorial by Wordsworth and Arnold families to Jemima Quillinaji. 
From coloured cartoon, (Heigkt about 7 fi^ 


Stained Glass as an (Lyfrt 




use of 

from error 

colour is impossible in glass, approximate colour, 
suggestive of the natural appearance of the objects, 
is always employed. 

It is this kind of suggestion of facts, without any 
attempt at realizing them illusively, which is always 
admissible where it promotes the interest and 
decorative beauty of the work. 

For instance, a distant figure looks smaller than 
a nearer one. If the suggestion of distance is in 
some degree essential in a subject, by all means 
make the remote figures small. There is no fear 
of their looking on a different plane, the quality of 
the colour and the lead lines round each will 
preclude this. The spectator will infer distance 
from the difference of scale : there will be no illusion 
to the eye. 

So in colour, a distant mountain often looks blue. 
Why should I not represent it by a piece of blue 
glass ? The reader may confront me with my own 
principle, and urge that the blue in the mountain 
is an effect of atmosphere, and that to introduce it 
in the glass would be to realize a natural effect. 
I do not accept this statement. As to the blue 
being an effect of atmosphere, so is the blue of the 
sky, but neither the pieces of blue glass leaded 
together for the sky nor those for the mountain 
bear any resemblance to sky or mountain. These, 
and the diminished scale of the distant figure, do 
but symbolize the things for which they stand j 
they no more represent them than the approximate 
flesh colour shaded with a monochrome brown 
represents the infinitely subtle half-tints of real 
flesh colour. 

No doubt this freedom would quickly degenerate 
into licence in the case of a man who hankered after 


Light and Shade s>3 

the unfit, but this can only happen if he has never found in 
felt the beauty of his material. ^^"^!f j 

To the artist who pictures the window he is ™^" ^ 
designing in his mind, everything will suggest 
occasions for giving some quality to the glass, which 
will increase its beautv by variety of texture and 
surface, by glitter and sparkle, or by depth and 
glow. He will put as many leads as he pleases for 
the sake of breaking up tlie colours and avoiding 
flat monotony of tint, and for giving tone to the 
glass, perfectly indifferent to the fact that his doing 
so excludes all imitation of nature j and he will 
avoid anything which would put the spectator on 
the wrong tack by suggesting such an imitation. 

With this clear purpose in his mind, no symbolic 
accordance with nature will mar the decorative 
beauty of his work or mislead the spectator. Such 
perspective or such approximation to natural colour 
as may promote the interest of his composition he 
will unhesitatingly adopt. They will be lines and 
local colour in his design, they will be explanatory 
in the presentation of his subject, but they will not 
be illusive. 

This cordial and complete assimilation by the Assimi- 
artist of the spirit of his material is an emancipation, ^^.non or 
where rules would be a bondage. ' The letter g^,-, emand- 
killeth, but the Spirit giveth life,' is true in art as pation. 

elsewhere. ^^^^i' ^ 

A glance at the photograph from the Salisbury ° ''^'^ ' , 
window (Fig. i o) will afford the reader a practical sy^^^i^ ° 
illustration of what is meant by symbolic as con- accordance 
trasted with imitative accordance with nature, with 
There is some simple perspective in the steps and "^^i""^- 
buildings seen through the arches on either side, 
and in the smaller figures occupying these spaces j 

94 Stained Glass as an o^rt 

there is also some general accordance between the 
colours of the sky, the foliage, and the grey stone- 
work of the arches and of the steps below the 
principal figures, and the natural colours of such 
objects, but I think no one can detect any pic- 
torial realism in the panels. As the photograph 
was done from the window it will show this better 
than those which are taken from cartoons. Only 
the glass itself would make it possible to judge 
how far the views here advocated have been car- 
ried out, but even in the photograph it will 
probably be seen that the glitter of the glass has 
been aimed at, and that nothing in the treatment 
of the composition has been allowed to interfere 
with this. 

The other illustrations of this point will suffer 
from being taken from cartoons only, but the reader 
will naturally inter that the glass executed from 
these will have the same qualities as that in the 
Salisbury window, and will consider this examination 
of them on that understanding. 
Pool of Fig. 3 2, which represents the angel descending to 

Bethesda, ^^^^ ^^ water in the pool at Bethesda, is a fair 
Abbey. instance of the kind of freedom which can be safely 
permitted where the aim is quite clear. The subject 
required a good many figures, and, in order to 
include those naturally in an upright composition, 
I assimied the pool to be at some depth below the 
level of the road, and to be approached by steps. 
This gave an opportunity for showing the figiires 
at different levels rather than on different planes. 
Such difference of scale as appears in the figures is 
useful in the composition. It gives greater impor- 
tance to the angel, and facilitates the introduction 
of a number of persons going about their occupations 

Fig. 32. 

(height about II KT.) 

FfoiH black and ivhite cartoon. 

Fig. 33. 

(HEIGHT 13 FT. 8 IN.' 

Front black and mhitc carfoon. 

Light and Shade 9^ 

in the road above, without making the upper part 
of the window appear top-heavy. 

The grey stone of the steps and arches serves as 
a quiet background, which brings into bold relief 
the glowing colours of the draperies, and the arches 
in their turn are relieved upon the blues of the 
sky and distance. The texture of the rough-hewn 
stone of the steps is as serviceable as their colour in 
contrasting with the flesh and draperies of the 
figures, while the horizontal lines of the masonry 
give the stability necessary in a design where the 
action of the figures is much varied. These matters 
are all simple enough, and needed no calculation. 
If the subject, the space to be filled, and the 
material are all fully present in the mind of the 
artist, an image will form itself in his mind, in 
which the subject will appear as stained glass, 
mosaic, tapestry, or bas-relief, according to his 
material j and in this case he will not have to refer 
to any arbitrary rules in order to bring his design 
into harmony with his material. 

Fig. 3 3 is from the cartoon for a window in ' Charity,' 
Philadelphia, the sketch for which has already been ^'^.^^^T 
reproduced on a small scale to illustrate another ^ P ^^• 
point (Fig. 9). The window was erected in memory 
of a benevolent lady, and her kindness to the poor 
was the subject to be treated. By making her stand 
in a portico with her maidens, distributing alms 
among the poor folk grouped upon the steps, an 
opportunity was afforded of showing a number of 
persons with very slight variation of plane. 

The portico is surmounted by a group of statuary 
representing Faith, Hope, and Love. These, and 
the architecture and steps, are all in white marble, 
while the curtains under the porch are deep blue. 


Stained Glass as an (^Art 

with the result that the principal figure, whose dress 
is in rubies of ditFerent qualities, is entirely relieved 
upon the deep blue j the maidens are half on the 
blue and half on white, and the other figures all on 

Fig. 34. 

Panels from windows in Forfar Church. From blacJi and white cartoons. 
{Height about gft. 6 in.) 

white j the white, however, as will be seen in the 
photograph, is not a bald white, but is varied with 
the tones of the marble, with carved work, and with 
slight and transparent shadows. 

I^ight and Shade 5,7 

Fig. 3 4 introduces a new element, that of archae- Paul at 
ology. This will be best dealt with when considering Athens, 
questions of style, the example being referred to ^"^ ^'^' 
here only in connexion with the perspective in- 
volved in it. 

The scene represented is that which is actually Treatment 
seen from Areopagus, where St. Paul preached, the of per- 
Propylsea and Pinakotheka in the left light and ^P^*^*^^^- 
the small temple of Nike Apteros on the right being 
of course restored. The top of Mount Hymettus 
shows behind the head and shoulders of St. Paul. 
I had treated the subject more than once before 
with the Acropolis in the background, to show that 
the scene was Athens, but without any attempt at 
accuracy of relative position. But when doing this 
cartoon I had by me a large model of the Acropolis, 
and on placing myself at the point where the top 
of Areopagus would be, 1 found that the view of 
the Propylsea which presented itself would work 
well into my composition, and I did not hesitate to 
adopt it. The larger mass of white marble in the 
left light is counterbalanced by the white label on 
the right, with the words, ' Whom therefore ye 
ignorantly worship. Him declare I unto you.' 

In the absence of the colour, it will be seen that 
there is no massing of shadows in the groups of 
figures j each is only shaded to express its own form, 
so that the contrasts of light and dark were those 
of the colours only. 

The same general remark about light and shade Marriage 
holds good of the design of the Marriage at Cana, at Cana, 
in St. Mark's, South Audley Street, where also a very f°"stree"t'^' 
modest display of perspective is admitted. 

I find, with some surprise, on looking through 
between two and three hundred designs for examples 


5,8 Stained Glass as an <LArt 

of an approach to naturalism in the treatment of 
subjects, only these five in which it can be fairly 
said that there is any perspective or suggestion of 
receding planes. 

As 1 hold no view excluding such treatment, when 

it is compatible with decorative beauty and with 

the true character of the material, I must conclude 

that my intuitive preference for a treatment which 

deals only with one plane, must be stronger than 

I was aware of, since even these slight departures 

from it number only about two per cent, of the 


Necessity I do not think there is among the designs one 

of the same departure from the main principle 1 have commended 

ab ut°^ ht concerning light and shade, that this should express 

and shade the form of individual objects, not the broad 

as about masses of light, half tone, and shadow found in 

colour nature, but I should like to say on this point that 

spective" ^^ principle should be held subject to the same 

qualification that 1 have urged respecting perspective 

and colour. The end must not be confounded with 

the means. The end to be kept constantly in view 

is the technical beauty and fitness of the work for 

its decorative purpose, and different men will feel 

diiferently about the means best adapted to this 

Treatment end. All very early glass conforms strictly to the 

of light principle enunciated above, but then all painting 

and shade j-j ^^ .^^ ^^^ time. The broad distinctions of light 

periods. ^^^'^ tone had not been then realized, so that the 

question whether or not they should be represented 

in stained glass did not arise. 

Simplicity Later, however, when the Italian painters were 

retained in developing their fullest powers of representing light 

chiaroscuro ^"^^ shade, when the chiaroscuro of nature was 

was ililly realized and often exaggerated in pictures, the 

Light and Shade ^t, 

decorative simplicity of effect was fully maintained developed 
in glass, unimpaired by the fact that glass-painters ^" pictorial 
had acquired great technical skill. In the remark- 
ably interesting series of windows in Fairford Church, Fairford 
the light and shade, though exquisitely finished, is §'^^^- 
quite simple and free from imitation of what we 
may call pictorial qualities. And yet this was 
produced early in the sixteenth century, when 
Raphael and Correggio had already passed away, and 
Titian and Tintoret were in their prime. 

It was not till the decorative sense was decaying 
in the other arts that pictorial or naturalistic light 
and shade became common in glass, though symptoms 
of it appear at the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Some very fine glass exists, showing evidence 
of this tendency before it was developed to such 
a degree as to destroy the decorative charm of the 

The windows of the choir in Lichfield Cathedral, Lichfield. 
which are dated from 15-34 to 1x39, ^^^ very im- Consider- 
pressive and dignified pieces of work. It is over able degree 
twenty years since I have seen them, but the im- of n^tu- 
pression left by them on my mind is that, though true^der^ 
they cannot compare with thirteenth-century glass corative 
for jewelled glitter, yet the true purpose of the feeling. 
work has not been lost sight of in seeking for 
a broad system of light and shade. The artist 
was aiming at genuine decorative beauty, and if 
the means he adopted were not the best, he never- 
theless made them serve his end. 

The work possesses a distinct beauty of its own, 
a beauty which the artist felt the material was 
capable of exhibiting, and which he succeeded in 
obtaining from it. The difficulty seems to be to 
stop at this point j at any rate the transition was 



Stained Glass as an zAirt 

about light 
and shade. 

Fig. 3f. 

In American Churchy Geneva. 
From coloured cartoon. 
{Height of figure ^fl.) 

rapid in that century, from 
the introduction of a cer- 
tain pictorial quality into 
the glass, by which it ac- 
quired a beauty of a new- 
kind, to the imitation of 
pictures pure and simple. 
A few years sufficed for 
this, and by that time the 
artists seem to have dropped 
the whole thing and to 
have come to the con- 
clusion that it was foolish 
to be struggling to do on 
glass what they could do so 
much better on canvas. 

This is the nemesis which 
follows all attempts to di- 
vert a technical art from 
its true purposes. It no 
longer interests artists, and 
is left to tasteless imitators 
of something for which the 
art is wholly unfitted. 

The conclusion to which 
these considerations seem 
lead is that a very 


simple realism in light and 
shade suffices to give the 
greatest charm to the de- 
tails in stained glass, and 
the greatest decorative 
beauty to a window as a 
whole j that no man can 
determine for another just 

Light and Shade loi 

what kind or degree of realism he should allow 
himself, but that if any man makes the realism his 
aim, instead of a means of enhancing the beauty of 
his glass, he is lost. 

When stained glass once breathed this impure 
spirit, it flickered for a short time and then went 
out with a whitf, like a candle let down into foul air. 

Note. — Using deeper coloured glass to express Expression 
the broader qualities of tone is of great value as of tone by 
giving variety to the quality of the local colour, ^f^^"^ r 
and is too simple a matter to be susceptible of o-iass. 
the degradation which so quickly besets excessive 
shading. In Fig. 3 y, which is taken from a coloured 
cartoon, the left leg is in tone, owing to its receding 
action. This is given by using darker glass, and, 
in a group of figaires, this method may be extended 
with much gain in decorative charm and no risk of 
illusive imitation. See Appendix, American Glass. 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 



The Gotliic 

p Cf"-7?-'T- 






HIS is a pregnant theme, and I 
must endeavour to condense 
under this head several matters 
which have not naturally come 
under notice in the earlier di- 
visions of our subject. 

The first point to be dealt 
with is the ' Medisevalism ' 
touched upon in the intro- 
ductory chapter (p. 2). In the 
last section I have endeavoured to supply a guid- 
ing principle which might enable the cultivated 
amateur to realize what sort of naturalism is con- 
genial to the conditions of stained glass, and the 
dangers that beset any attempt to make naturalism 
an aim. My experience of the way educated people 
very often regard stained glass led me to discuss 
this matter at some length and to make the principle 
as clear as it was in my power to do j but it is right 
to say that this error is not one to which the com- 
mercial glass firms of the day seem at all prone. 

The prevailing heresy in the trade is of a totally 
different, one might almost say, of an opposite kind, 
and is due, doubtless, to the circumstances attending 
the revival of stained glass as a craft. 

The gradual decay of all interest in the artistic 
side of our daily lives which set in with the great 
commercial activity of the last hundred years, or 



thereabout, led to a reaction in which a special 
feature was a revived admiration of Gothic archi- 
tecture. The intention of those gentlemen who Good 
contrasted the noble design and exquisite details intention 
of our old cathedrals, churches, Sec, with the bald, °evivtlists 
depressing buildings which were being raised in 
their time, was excellent j the misdirection of energy 
which followed is one of the greatest evidences we 
possess that the love of beauty was dead, or at least 
in a state of syncope, showing no signs of life. One Tasteless 
of the first results was the defilement of our most develop- 
glorious buildings by vulgar 'restorations,' and a ™^"y^° ^ 
part of the restoration consisted of filling the First re- 
windows with excruciating motistrosities, supposed sultant 

to be like mediaeval stained glass. Imbecile drawing- cnme ^ 

J , , , , ° , , ° wholesale 

and crude and gaudy colour seemed to that genera- destructive 

tion to be the distinguishing characteristic of early ' restora- 

glass, and these were qualities which could be readily tions.' 

supplied at so much an acre by the trade. 

If we may endeavour to guess the motives which Probable 
actuated the well-intentioned but erring gentlemen ^^^J. °^ 
who were responsible for the enormities which (to ^ya/[sts gg 
our shame) still desecrate our cathedrals, we may regards 
imagine some such thought as this to have been in glass. 
their minds. ' We find in the glass of the thirteenth 
century a quaint and primitive style of archaic 
drawing, and a childlike naivete of conception in 
the presentation of subjects which charm us j let us 
go and do likewise.' And, judging from the results, 
it appears that their idea of ' doing likewise ' was 
to make ridiculous caricatures of the originals. 

If a man were to fulfil the command to ' become Trade con- 
as little children,' by wearing a child's frock, short ception of 
socks and shoes, and by imitating a child's toddling ^j.^- 
walk, lisp and language, he would be the intellectual 

I04, Stained Glass as an zy£rt 

counterpart of the glass-painting tradesmen who 

thought they were following the principles of 

mediaeval artists by making childish caricatures of 

their mannerisms. The mimicry of children by 

grown men is only practised in real life -at the 

pantomime. The cathedral is considered the proper 

place for the corresponding antics where tradesmen's 

art is concerned. 

Difficulty The misconception upon which this practice is 

ofj,bolish- |3.^gej ig gQ irrational that the mere mention of it 

ingrained Ought to be enough to dispose of it, but unfortu- 

supersti- nately the practice itself has lasted so long and 

tion. established itself so firmly that it will take strenuous 

efforts to root it out. 
Quaintness -phe thirteenth-century artist drew quaintly, often 
o-lass grotesquely, but it was his own natural drawing, and 

genuine. was full of life and vigour. The conceptions por- 
trayed in his glass were often naive and childlike, 
but they were his own genuine conceptions j and as 
for the design and technique, they are splendid. 
The work he produced was a full and noble ex- 
pression of the best that was in him. Witness the 
Chartres window and countless others of the period. 
The fourteenth-century artist worked in the same 
spirit. He did not imitate the art of the thirteenth 
century. He gave his own best. 

The fifteenth-century artist maintained the same 

principle : he differed in technique and in spirit 

from his predecessors, and this difference found full 

AH early expression in his work. He did not imitate the art of 

artists gave ^/^^ thirteenth or fourteenth centuries. He gave his own 

[jggj best. He could do nothing else because he was an 

Impos- If stained glass were now in the hands of artists, 

81 1 ity o there would be no occasion to urge anything so 

Style 105 

obvious as this. No artist ever has done, or could any other 
do, anything but give his own best. Any man who course to 

oes otherwise, whatever abilities he may possess, 
is not an artist. 

Bur with trade the only consideration is to do Production 
what pays. A member of one of the commercial by trade of 
firms said to a friend of mine some time ago, ' There's ^^kh^there 
no market for thirteenth century nowj fifteenth is a market. 
century is all the rage.' 

This is the tradesman's position in a nutshell. In 
the early revival of Gothic, thirteenth century was 
' all the rage,' but as the theory which then obtained 
was that the style of drawing in a window had 
nothing to do with the style of the artist who 
designed it, but must be an exact imitation of the 
style of the artists who lived in the architectural 
period to which the stonework belonged, it was 
found necessary for commercial firms to advertise 
that they supplied stained glass in the styles of the 
thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. 

This was a common form of advertisement not Absurdity 
very long ago \ 1 do not know if it has yet died out, pf attempt- 
but the practice remains. It is amazing that any ^^^^^ ^ 
considerable number of men could have agreed in noble art 
professing to supply the equivalents of the great art by training 
of the past, which people travel far to see, by the apprentices 

'^ f, ' . . ^ ^ . J ,•' to a few 

process of training apprentices to draw goggle eyes, ^^-^i^^Ys of 
senselessly distorted figures, and wearisome crinkled trade. 
draperies, and more amazing that a public could be 
found to believe in such pretensions. 

Those who did so believe could never have per- Appalling 
ceived any beauty in the old glass, or they could rubbish 
not have tolerated such vile stuff as the earlier J."j.^edrals 
modern windows in Westminster Abbey, the east supplied by 
window in Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, the trade. 

io(f Stained Glass as an cylrt 

windows in the na^^e of Canterbury Cathedral, and 
similar ones in nearly every cathedral in England. 
It is true that since then public taste has improved, 
and commercial firms have had to improve their 
workmanship. They have not improved their prin- 
ciples, but they imitate old work more cleverly. 
People of taste began to complain of the garish 
colours, and they had to go into this question, 
and arrived at some good imitations of old glass, 
and have ever since produced excellent material ; 
an unqualified advantage which should be fully 

But we are considering here not material, but 
design, and in this respect there was no improve- 
ment in aim. There was no art, not a spark of 
original conception, no expression of any thought 
or feeling, nothing but a trick of imitation. If 
there was any improvement, it consisted merely in 
The tricks this, that the trick was better done. The earlier 
better done attempts could Only deceive the rawest novices j the 
"°^" later ones take in a much wider public. 

Various concessions were made to meet the demand 

of the average philistine : the grotesque elements 

were watered down and a slightly more modern 

style of drawing introduced when it was found that 

this sort of thing pleased the public. But apparently 

the public were ' pleased ' to accept a good deal still 

that to an artist seems unspeakably ridiculous. 

Comi- There are some windows in a well-known London 

calities of church, made by a well-known London firm at the 

^"^^T? time when early fifteenth-century glass was the 

glass. ^^ favourite in the market. So the fifteenth-century 

tap was turned on, and the regulation crinkles, &c., 

were poured out in liberal profusion. Now in the 

early fifteenth century, when the yellow stain had 



become familiar, it was commonly used as the con- 
ventional tint for hair. The windows in question 
represent a row of patriarchs, or apostles, on a large 
scale, all old or elderly men, and their hair is all 
about the colour of primroses. (If I am right in 
believing that these windows were put up before 
1880, it will be evident that the colour has no 
political significance.) 

Although it is impossible to exclude the ludicrous Calamitous 
element from the consideration of such absurdities, ^f^^\ °^ 
yet to any one who has any reverence for art this j.anceTn°-" 
subject must be felt to be a very serious one, for the creased by 
mischief that is being wrought is untold. It is durability 
a lamentable factor in the situation that it is just in ofmatenal. 
those technical arts which concern work which is 
durable, that this vice is rampant. If a spurious 
form of pictorial art acquires an unworthy popu- 
larity, time will expose its hollowness, and the only 
sufferers are the deluded purchasers who have to 
pay for their experience by finding that the market 
value of their pictures has gone down, but this is 
not the case with the technical arts as a rule, and in 
particular it is not the case with the art we are here 

Stained glass is a very durable form of art : it is Difficulty 
commonly a fixture in a church or other public ofremov- 
building, and in a large majority of cases is employed ^"^^^ ^j^"^_ 
as a form of memorial, so that both on practical everdis- 
grounds and on grounds of respect for the feelings graceful. 
of individuals, it is extremely difficult to interfere 
with a stained glass window when it is once fixed, 
and it is just here where the evil is most enduring 
that it is most rife. 

The case is bad enough in our churches, but it is Systematic 
a scandal that in an educated country our noblest disfigure- 

io8 Stained Glass as an c^rt 

ment of national buildings should be systematically disfigured 
cathedrals, ^ff\^^ inane productions, which after-ages must pro- 
nounce to be rubbish, because the average public 
is still too ignorant to understand that works of art 
must be the works of artists. 

When will fairly educated members of society 
learn that we cannot gather grapes from thorns, figs 
from thistles, nor art from tradesmen > 

When will they learn that the art of every age 
must express the mind of that age and of the indi- 
Mimicry of vidual artists living in that age ; that attempts to 
old work, mimic the mannerisms of other ages produce no art 
no art at |i ^^ ^^ hx^^ and can be nothing but childish 

all. ' b -1 1 u V 

and contemptible shams .- 

We all feel this about the shams of fifty years 
ago, but we have not the wit to see that fifty 
years hence all will feel it about the shams of 
Paying to It is merely a question of education whether the 
be tricked, tricks take us in or not. But what a muddled state 
of mind that must be which will pay a large sum 
of money to be cleverly tricked. The purchaser of 
a commercial window knows it is not fifteenth- 
century work, he knows that it is not nineteenth- 
century art\ it is sham fifteenth century made in 
the nineteenth, and yet he thinks he has got a work 
of art, 
' Look as A few years ago an advertisement appeared for 

goodasold.' -^ time regidarly in the daily papers, offering for sale 
^^d'^t-^" d ' Violins at thirty shillings each, look as good as 
criass. old, each having label "Antonius Stradivarius me 

fecit KJ9J-" inside.' Who bought these sham 
Strads ? Obviously the people who regarded music 
as the purchasers of sham mediaeval glass regard 
the sister art. The imitation fiddle would be worth- 



less to the musical ear, and the imitation old glass 
is worthless to the artistic mind. But both fiddle 
and window are got up to ' look as good as old ' to 
the inexperienced eye, and apparently there are 
people who are satisfied with this. The window 
looks well, and what more do you want ? seems to 
be their view. 

The late Mr. John Bright said of a contemporary 
member of the House of Commons that his speeches 
sounded very well if you did not listen to what he 
said. There are a it^ of the more successful sham 
mediaeval windows on which the same praise might 
be conferred, that they look well if you pay no 
attention to what is in them, but it is rare for 
them to attain to this standard. For the most part 
the first glance is enough to reveal them as either 
depressingly dull or ridiculous. 

I have already mentioned that there are exceptions Exceptions 
where commercial houses have co-operated with to the 
artists, and there are mixed cases, where members fyi"^^bout 
of firms are themselves men of artistic ability, but, commercial 
as a rule, the conditions of trade soon stunt and glass. 
mislead their powers, and though their presence 
may ensure a certain better standard of taste in the 
selection of colours and in the plan of a window, 
it rarely suffices to protect their work from degene- 
rating into a cut and dried imitation of earlier 

Not only do 1 desire to guard against exaggera- Respon- 
ting the extent of the evil here discussed (which it sibility of 
would indeed be very difficult to do), but I care- pf,|^|fc*for 
fuUy refrain from any personal references. It is the evil. 
principles (or the want of them) which have to be 
attacked, not persons. As houses of business the 
commercial firms may be admirably conducted, and 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 

demand of 
public for 

of labour 
in com- 
art in- 

it is not discreditable to men of business that they 
should manage their affairs so as to ensure the 
largest profits. Neither is it surprising that so long 
as there are people who attach no value to art or 
imagination, and only care that a work should ' look 
as good as old,' business men should undertake to 
supply them. 

If a demand were to arise for imitation 'old 
masters,' any of our ' universal providers,' who have 
any enterprise in them, would set up a department 
which would supply pictures in the styles of the 
Florentine, Roman, Venetian, and Bolognese schools. 
A staff of young employes with a turn for drawing", 
but incapable of doing any original work, would 
soon learn a few tricks of the trade, by which they 
could turn out Botticellis and Titians at so much 
the square yard. Had picture painting died out 
for three centuries, and been revived by business 
men as a speculation, this would have happened, 
but happily it did not die out, and probably in any 
case fewer persons would have regarded pictures as 
so much furniture, to be ordered, like stained glass, 
at the manufacturers. (Stained glass windows can 
now be had at the stores.) 

Meanwhile it makes lovers of art despair to see 
the country swamped with shop-art — shop-carving, 
shop-metalwork, shop-mosaic, shop-glass — and to see 
that the average educated Briton accepts this as 
quite natural, and regards these deplorable inanities 
as ' Decoration.' 

Before leaving this painful theme, I must call 
attention to one point closely connected with it, 
that is to say, the effect of the system on workman- 
ship. Division of labour is an important element 
in the great profit-system. It is an absolutely 



destructive force where art is concerned, but is with real 
brought into full play in the production of com- ^'''^• 
mercial glass. 

As I have shown in the chapter on Technique, the 
glass-painter should be an accomplished draughts- 
man, and it goes without saying that he should be 
able to take the artist's design as a whole, so as to 
treat it intelligently, above all, he should draw his 
own outlines, which in glass are of the highest 

Now the actual system employed at the com- A panel 
mercial firms is this. The outlines are given to of stained 
any raw lad who is only beginning, because they \ ^^^-^ 
are traced, so that the painter, when shading, is mercial 
hampered by unintelligent and clumsily drawn house done 
contours. Then the young men, who have acquired ^" l\ 
the knack of doing the draperies, have detached diflFercnt 
pieces of these put on to their plate to shade, while employes. 
the best painter has all the flesh given to him, so 
that his plate-glass is covered with heads, and arms, 
and legs in confusion, which he has to paint without 
any reference to the figures to which they belong; 
the odd pieces of background, foliage, buildings, 
&c., being given to inferior hands. The result is Con- 
necessarily that none of the men can take any sequent 
interest in their work or know what it looks like i^tei-°st ^.q 
when put together. It is a perpetual drudgery, ali. 
a monotonous repetition of the same sort of thing 
to each, without the opportunity of regarding it 
intelligently. The execution under such conditions 
becomes mechanical, but it goes faster, the work 
suffers, but the profits are increased. 

For many years I had to depend on the firms for 
the execution of my designs for glass, and cordially 
recognize, in the case of the two or three with 


Stained Glass as an z>4rt 

whom I co-operated, that every facility was given to 
me to correct work and to train the painters to do 
what I wanted, some of them coming from time to 
time to my studio to work under me. There was 
no lack of courteous endeavour to meet my wishes, 
but the conditions otFered some insuperable diffi- 
culties. In this matter of division of labour, for 
instance, 1 could get very little concession either 
as regards outlining or getting a design painted as 
a whole. The men had only learnt to do one thing, 
and the one who painted draperies could not paint 
a head. 

By careful training, and often painting on the 
glass myself, 1 was able to obtain much excellent 
workmanship, but it seemed impossible to get 
beyond a certain point until I established my own 
works, where I abolished division of labour and the 
breaking up of subjects into fragments, and had 
the whole work under my sole control from first 
to last. 


It is pleasant to turn from the deplorable state 
of things which has arisen out of the invasion and 
annexation of artistic territory by trade, to the 
contemplation of subjects which concern art only, 
and the first which naturally arises is the true 
solution of the problem over which the Gothic 

Style, dyfrchitectural u? 

revivalists blundered so lamentably when they 
called in trade as their ally. 

The problem in question is this, In what manner True in- 

should the style of a building influence the style of Aue'ice of 

the artist who decorates it ? biuldino- 

The false and impracticable answer was that the upon style 
artist should have no style of his own, but should of decora- 
adopt for the moment that of the period when the p°"' . 
building was erected, or, in the case of a modern fluence. 
structure, that of the period of whose architectural Abnega- 
style it is an imitation. The artist must drop one ^^o;^ ^1 
style and take up another, according to the archi- ^-s^qJ^ 
tecture of his building, as he would take otf one style and 
coat to put on another ; he must masquerade in the temporary 
costume of various countries and ages, and pretend ^.doption of 

CD J J- ^ some ODSO- 

to have been born in these various places and times, j^te style. 
and to draw and think as men drew and thought 
there and then. 

This solution must be negatived flatly and un- Immorality 
compromisingly. First, if it were possible, it would, of such 
artistically considered, be profoundly immoral ; it p^g^ence 
would make all decorative art a hollow pretence ; 
it could never then be the genuine expression of 
anything the artist really felt. 

But this point need not be discussed, for, second, Impossi- 

it is absolutely impossible, as shown in the last t>ility of 

chapter. The man who has no feelings of his own, pgrary 

?io perception of beauty of his own, no conceptions adoption of 

of his own to express, is not an artist, and his work a style. 

is not art. The man who has feelings, perceptions Impossi- 

of beauty, and conceptions of his own to express, ^^^^^Y to an 

must and will express them, whatever building he is v^orkino- in 

working in. He would not if he could, and could any styTe 

not if he would, be a ' Tack of all ages and master but his 

r ■, own. 

of none.' 

114 Stained Glass as an <LArt 

What then is he to do if he has to decorate 

buildings of different ages, or at least in different 

styles? The answer is simple. We have only to 

appeal to the universal practice of all artists, past 

Adaptation and present. No artist ever entertained the idea 

of design, of drawing the human figure, or draperies, or trees, 

"r'i^, "^^ or anything else, in half a dozen different styles, in 

true solit- order to ape the manner of ages to which he did 

tion. not belong, but all artists have adapted their designs 

to the forms they have had to fill and to the scale 

and proportions of the buildings of which those 

forms were a part. I'his is a totally different thing 

from changing" their style of drawing and painting, 

their way of thinking, their conceptions of the 

themes they have to deal with j a thing which 

happily no human being can do. The business firm's 

employe, not being troubled with conceptions, is 

ready to copy the mannerisms of any age, and to 

produce the absurd results with which we are too 

familiar. The artist will make every design suit its 

situation j the manner will be his own. 

Dancing It cannot be too emphatically stated that this 

among alone is possible to decorative art. Trade, and trade 

^ ^1 only, has ever attempted to destroy art and character 

only known by aping tricks of manner, which were of course no 

to the trade, tricks in the original work, but always become so 

in the hand of the servile copyist. 
Universal Can we imagine any artist in the past, whether of 
practice of the earlier or later periods, altering his style ac- 
to^workTn^ cording to his building's. In the church of Santa 
their own Maria Novella in Florence, an early Italian Gothic 
style. building, there are wall paintings in adjoining parts 

^h'^tT^'^' by Giotto and Ghirlandajo^ and many others, 
naissance Each painter is himself absolutely. Ghirlandajo 

^ y* 1 Ghirlandajo was born about i^o years after Giotto. 

Style, Q^rchitectural 115 

was a renaissance artist, and his frescoes are renais- 
sance \ every painter's individuality and the character 
of his age are fully expressed on the walls of 
this wonderful church, which is consequently a rich 
treasure-house of noble work. If Italy had been A Night- 
cursed in the fifteenth century with commercial mare! 
decorating firms, Santa Maria Novella would have 
been filled with cut and dried imitations of Giotto, 
and would have become a charnel-house of corrup- 
tion, such as most of our churches now are. It is 
worth noting that in the choir of Santa Maria 
Novella, between the walls decorated by Ghirlan- 
dajo, is a large stained glass window. It is in the 
later Italian manner of its own time. 

Italy is filled with examples of the kind. In no 
case has an artist stultified himself by pretending to 
belong to a different age to his own. 

But take the present day. Is there any exception Same rule 
to this same rule } Does any artist draw or paint '^^''^s %^^ 
in any style but his own ? Outside trade decoration °" ^^' 
is there any case of sham medi^evalism or sham 
anything else ? Personal proclivities there are and Perma- 
always have been. As Botticelli and Mantegna nence of 
showed strong classical predilections while many p^edXc- 
contemporaries were still under the influence of tions of 
their Gothic predecessors, so we find some of our particular 
painters of to-day manifest in their work a strong ^^ists. 
dominant love of classic work, the late Lord 
Leighton and Mr. Poynter for instance, while others, 
like Sir Edward Burne- Jones, have evidently been 
more influenced by medieval, and, in particular, by 
Florentine art. But in all such cases it is a genuine 
personal feeling, it is the true expression of the best 
that is in them, it has nothing in common with the 
imitation of tricks of manner, and it does not change 

I a 


Stained Glass as an zyfrt 

with different buildings (nor with the state of the 

Difficulty It would be difficult to offer anything like rules 

of giving foj. j-i^e adapting of designs to spaces or to special 

o^w^'^L^ styles of building. Some of the examples already 
adaptation .; & . r j- • -^ 

of design given Will show at least how such varying conditions 
to spaces, affect my own designs. 

Fig. ■^6. 

Study for angel for tracery of window in church at Brooklyn. 

A comparison between the broad window (Fig. 33) 
and the narrow lancets in the St. Saviour's windows 
(Fig. 2 5) will show what totally different character 
can be imparted to a design by the influence of the 
shape and surroundings. It is not merely that 
the one light is broad and the others narrow, but 
the style of the thirteenth -century architecture 
suggested a different sort of effect and treatment. 

It is hardly necessary to say that there is no 
thirteenth -century drawing in the window. The 

Style in Relation to Ornament ny 

figures in the two windows will be found to be 
alike in this respect, the difference being in the 
design only. 

The adaptation of composition to spaces has 
already been touched upon in the consideration of 
design generally. The Epiphany window (Fig. 30) 
gives several instances, in the heads of the lights, 
in the tracery, and particularly in the rose, where 
it is plain that the form of the group of angels is 
suggested entirely by the shape of the space. Here 
is a flying angel, designed for a rather unusually 
shaped piece of tracery over two round-headed 
lights (Fig. 3(5). 


There is one important division of this branch Style in 
of our subject which must occupy our attention for ornament. 
a little while now, and that is. Style in connexion 
with Ornament. It is by no means an easy subject 
to treat or to come to decided conclusions about. 
I have spoken strongly and in the most unqualified 
way about the puerility of mimicking the manner 
of other ages in the figure-work of to-day, because 
that is a question which admits of no difference 
of opinion, and about which there has been no 
difference of opinion among artists \ but ornament 
stands on a different footing, for reasons which are 
clear enough. 

As I have just endeavoured to show, the true 


Stained Glass as an oyTrt 

plexity of 

of point 
of view 
and archi- 

influence which architectural' conditions should 
exercise over the decorative artist, is not in the 
drawing and painting of his figures, draperies, &c., 
but in his general design and mode of filling his 
spaces. Ornament, however, consists so largely of 
design and so little of direct representation, that the 
way out of this problem is not nearly so simple as 
out of the one already considered. 

At one time many architects held the view which 
I hope 1 have refuted, that the stained glass of 
to-day should be exactly like that of the various 
early periods, the style being dependent on that of 
the architecture it decorates. This mistake arose 
from their point of view. They did not realize 
the difference between architectural forms and the 
forms of natural objects — human figures, draperies, 

It may be open to question whether the true end 
even of architecture in any age can be to reproduce 
exactly the structural forms, the shafts, arches, 
mouldings, and other details of past ages, and 
1 fancy the present school of architects have asked 
themselves that question, and that they have not 
all answered it in the affirmative ; but whatever 
grounds there may be for believing that architecture 
should grow and develop like all other things, and 
that it should do so now as it did in all former 
ages, it can never be said that a particular form 
of arch or clustered shaft which was beautiful in 
the thirteenth century is an obvious absurdity now. 
But it can and must be said that the human figure 
as drawn in the thirteenth century, in good faith, 
would be an obvious absurdity from the hand of 
a nineteenth-century artist. 

The figure of the early artist was in full accord- 

Style in Relation to Ornament nc, 

ance with his perceptions and convictions, and we 
feel its genuineness and its vitality through its 
grotesqueness. From an artist of to-day it would 
be in defiance of his perceptions and convictions, 
and would be a gross affectation 5 consequently no 
artists draw such figures. 

But this is not the case with the shafts and arches. 
They are not representations of natural objects, and 
therefore can be convicted of no wilful departure 
from natural forms. The architect who adheres to 
them may be right or wrong, but, even if wrong, 
he may be quite honest and acting on a genuine 

I fancy i&w will deny that much architectural 
work, which is not only beautiful but original, has 
been produced in recent times by new dispositions 
and combinations of the old forms. Proportion in 
architecture is of such overwhelming importance, 
that if a man possesses an imaginative sense of it, 
his work will be imposing quite apart from its 

It is plain then that we cannot argue from archi- Impossi- 
tecture to figures 5 what may be permissible in the "^^'^^y °^ 
one must be intolerable in the other. But may we ^^^^ archi- 
not argue from architecture to ornament ? May it tecture to 
not be reasonably urged that the ornamental part figures. 
of a window should correspond in style with the g^"*^^°" 
architecture of the church to which it belongs ? whether 
This certainly may be plausibly urged, and, in ornament 
advocating a different view, I wish to do so with ?'''°lj.'^ ^% 
diffidence, not because of any doubt in my own the archi- 
mind, but because I recognize that a case may be tecture or 
made out for the other side. the figures 

The first point to be considered is whether the \" ^ 
ornament in the stained glass of a window connects 

in a win- 


Stained Glass as an z^rt 

to associate 
parts of 
with each 
other rather 
than with 
gruity of 
in one 
of this. 


ness of 
each man's 
own styJe, 
of style of 

nance of 
rule even 
in archi- 

itself more closely with the figures in that glass or 
with the surrounding architecture. I think it will 
be admitted that to the eye the various parts of the 
stained glass are much more closely associated with 
each other than with anything in the stonework, 
and that an incongruity between the style of figures 
and ornament in the same design would offend the 
eye more than any that might exist between these 
and the neighbouring architecture. 

I know this to my cost, for some sixteen years 
ago I was asked by the late Mr. Street to design the 
figures for a window in Salisbury Cathedral, for 
which he was plamiing the ornament, he being the 
architect to the cathedral. 1 found that his orna- 
ment was simply a copy of some of the thirteenth 
century grisaille from old windows in the cathedral, 
and the discordance between the figures and this 
antiquated ornament is a perpetual eyesore. 

The next point to consider is, What has been the 
practice in the best periods, and how do the results 
of that practice now strike us ? I think it will be 
generally agreed that throughout the middle ages 
architects were remarkably indifferent about the 
mixture of styles in their buildings. The only fixed 
principle being that every man worked in the style 
of his own time, whether in architecture, or in 
stained glass, or other decorative work. A stained 
glass window was homogeneous in its figure and 
ornament, and its style was that of the time when 
it was painted, whatever the architecture of the 
church might be. The same is true of carved stalls, 
screens, or other decoration. Not only so, but if 
an addition was made to the structural form of 
a church, the addition was in the style of its own 
time, without regard to that of the original building. 

Style in Relation to Ornament m 

If a window were opened out in the wall of a Nor- 
man church, for instance, the mullions and tracery 
of the window would be Early English, Decorated, 
or Perpendicular, according to the time in which it 
was done. Even in the more severe symmetry of 
classic work such mixtures are found. In the 
Fropylaea of the Acropolis at Athens, the inner 
columns are Ionic, between two Doric fafades. This 
last instance does not concern the question of period, 
as the styles existed contemporaneously, though the 
Doric was earlier in its origin, but it shows that 
the association of ditferent styles in a building was 
not distasteful to the greatest architects. The one 
thing that was distasteful was the aiFectation of 
a style that was not the artist's own. I think all 
are agreed that these combinations of styles are 
picturesque, are full of historic interest, and are 
indispensable to the genuineness of each work. 

What then is the practical bearing of these 
considerations upon the treatment of ornament in 
stained glass? 

If the facts adduced are accurate and the reasoning- 
sound, we have arrived at three conclusions : 

1. That want of accordance between the figures General 
and ornament in a window is disturbing ; or, to put conclusions 

, . , \_ r about orna- 

the matter ni more general terms, the parts of any ^gj^,._ 
one design should be homogeneous in style. 

2. That the presence in a building of separate 
features in ditferent styles from the original archi- 
tecture has been allowed in all the best periods, and 
that the results are full of interest and charm. 

3. That the one all-important condition is that 
all work must be the genuine expression of the 
artist's own feeling, and not a sham. 

But we started by accepting the condition that 


Stained Glass as an (lArt 

of orna- 
ment from 

of foliage 
at different 

tion of 
same rule 
to orna- 
ment as to 

the style of a building should influence the design 
of its decoration, and that ornament consists chiefly 
of design ; so that in our practical conclusions we 
must not forget this. 

In my opinion the law arrived at about figures 
may be safely applied to ornament. The form 
ani situation of the space to be decorated should 
influence not the manner but the design. 

Ornament consists in only a slight degree of 
representation, but it commonly conveys impressions 
received from natural forms. Foliage, for instance, is 
the staple of ornament j it is true we translate its free 
and irregadar growth into a language of rhythmic 
order wdth recurrent forms like a versification 
in visible images, but the mode of this translation 
is not arbitrary. Each country and age has had 
its own mamier, Eg}''pt, Assyria, Greece, mediaeval 
Northern Europe, Italy in the renaissance, all 
have seen the thing in their own way, and those 
ways are as full of character as their treatment of 

Here are illustrations of the way in which foliage 
has been translated into decoration at different 
times (Fig. 37). 

How much we should have lost if the people 
of any one of these ages, instead of giving play to 
their imagination, had thought it their duty to copy 
the decoration of earlier times. 

The only solution of this problem that appears 
to me to be worthy of artists, is to let the manner 
of their ornament be their own, but to determine 
the scope and movement of the leading lines, the 
scale of the details, the amount of colour, &:c., 
according to the form and situation of the space 
to be filled. 

Style in Relation to Ornament 

But though the principle is simple, it is not an Adaptation 
easy one to carry out in the present day. of design 

•' •' ^ ^ not chang- 

ing of style. 

Fig. 37. 

a, b. Closed ajid open lotits from Egyptian painting of colonnettes. 

c. Assyrian bas-relief, sacred tree, NW. palace, Nimrod, 

d. From Greelt palera. 

The decorative sense seems to flourish most 

124 Stained Glass as an o^rt 

Decline of happily among primitive peoples. These decorate 

decorative everything they come across j the artistic instinct 

late civili- ^^ natural to unsophisticated human beings, and in 

zations. an early stage of development, decoration is its only 

outlet. Even when they begin to represent objects 

they treat them as line and colour, not in the spirit 

of imitation. Decoration precedes representation as 

verse precedes prose. 

Prevalence In the Bayeux tapestry, when Duke William's 

oforna- rne^ cut down trees with which to build his ships, 

treatment ^^ trees are foliated ornament, with elegantly 

even in Curled Stems, although the men, by some unexplained 

pictorial process, manage to saw them into straight planks. 

work ot -pQ those who see evervthine; in this lisrht, orna- 

early times. , . . ./ o o 5 . 

mental decoration comes spontaneously j and it 
gains delicacy and beauty with the development of 
draughtsmanship, but when the realistic faculty 
reaches a certain point the decorative sense seems to 
Tendency wane ; arabesques appear where charmingly painted 
of late nymphs stand in impossible positions on the tips 

to become *^^ gracefully curled leaves, intermixed with birds, 
realistic. vases, fountains, griffins, fishes, or anything else that 
comes into the painter's head j the symmetry, the 
absence of perspective relations, and the impossibility 
of the whole scene being the only means of dis- 
tinguishing it from painting pure and simple. 
Raphael's Here are specimens of Raphael's charming ara- 
arabesques. besques in the Vatican (Fig. 3 8). They are full of 
grace and playful fancy, but one feels that they are 
ornamental painting rather than ornament. They 
are genuine, but mark the point at which decadence 
is inevitable j no further development in that 
direction is possible. 
Nineteenth We know what it became under nineteenth cen- 
century j.yj.y civilization in this country, what our wall 

Style in Relation to Ornament 


papers and carpets were until a modern Hercules ornament 
undertook the far more than Herculean task of ^^'^'^^ 
cleansing our dwellings from the vile and putrid 
stuff which defiled them. The decorative sense 

Fig. 38. 

Arabesques by Raphael in the Loggie at the Vatican. 

appeared to have become extinct with us, and was Depth 

diseased almost past hope ; still there was some of its 

life in it, and that light has in late years been ^•^S^"*)'- 
greatly quickened. But under such revivals there 


Stained Glass as an (L/frt 

Tendency is always much harking back to old forms, owing 
r/^^w'^^" '■^ ^^^ interrupted growth, and a well defined style, 

forms at 
times of 

Fig. yj. 

Capital and group in Ducal Palace, Venice. 

characteristic of the period, is hardly to be ex- 
pected. The difficulty is enormously increased where 
trade intervenes, and confines itself simply to the 

Style in Relation to Ornament 


mechanical copying of old patterns, and some years 
ago it would have been difficult to find a prevail- 
ing character in English 
ornament, so that an artist 
could only give expression 
to his own personal predilec- 

Happily, outside the work 
of the business houses, and 
even including this where 
they co-operate with artists, 
something like a common 
spirit in the design of or- 
nament is becoming mani- 
fest, founded on the past, 
as all good work is, but 
exhibiting a character of its 

The style which, in my 
opinion, is most congenial 
to modern art, and most 
susceptible of natural de- 
velopment, is that which 
long prevailed, though with 
important modifications, in 
early Italian work. The 
foliage in the best Italian 
ornament almost persuades 
one that it is that of some 
ideal flora, which is actually 
rhythmic and symmetrical in 
its growth. It harmonizes 
perfectly with naturally 

drawn figures, but is decorative in the highest 

Fig. 40 a. 

Grisaille from wijidow in Forfar 

ment of 
istic style 
not rapid. 

of such 
style at 

in early 


Stained Glass as an zyTrt 





Some very perfect instances of the style occur 
in the capitals of the columns at the Ducal 
Palace in Venice. Here is a specimen (Fig. 39), 
in which the foliage is associated with figures. 
There are simpler examples of decorative foliage 
treated in the same spirit in the Duomo at 


of similar 
in glass. 

Fig. 40 h. 

Grisaille from window in Forfar Church, From black and white cartoon. 

If it be asked how ornament of this character can 
be applied to glass, I can only give a few examples 
showing how I personally feel about it. Figs. 40 «, b 
are from the cartoons of the panels above and below 
the Paul at Athens (Fig. 34), in which the foliage is 
in light and varied bluish-grey greens, upon a white 
ground. Fig. 41 is the grisaille from the Salisbury 
window (Fig. 10). An example of foliage and 

Style in Relation to Ornament 


figures combined 
was given in the 
small outline, Fig. 
1 2, and some foli- 
age with smaller 
scale detail in 
Fig. i^ 

I hope enough 
has been said to 
show that even in 
that division of 
the art we are dis- 
cussing, in which 
this age is weak- 
est, we are not left 
to the wretched 
resource of copy- 
ing mechanically 
other men's work, 
and that prece- 
dent as well as 
reason demand 
that what we do 
should be our 
own, even though 
the style of our 
work differ from 
that of the build- 
ing we are deco- 


Stained Glass as an oyfrt 


&c., in 


Custom in 
earJy work 
of repre- 
senting all 
people in 
costume of 
own time. 

bility of 
ing men 
in battered 
tubes in 

This subject is so far related to the last, that the 
error of copying" the work ofpast periods carried 
with it the practice of treating costumes, buildings, 
&.C., as if they belonged to those periods. \i the 
principles here advocated are accepted, it will follow 
that we shall not dress the people in our scriptural 
or other subjects in the costumes of the thirteenth 
or fourteenth centuries, merely because the churches 
we are decorating were built in those periods, or are 
modern imitations of the architecture of those 
periods \ but the question then arises, what costumes 
shall we give them. 

The old practice was a very simple one, and gives 
great value to the old work. The early artists 
represented people as they saw them, without any 
regard to the country or period of the subject 
represented. They knew little or nothing about 
those places and times, and they loved to show 
things as they knew them j conse(juently their works 
are a storehouse of information about their own 

There is an obvious objection to our keeping up 
this practice in the present day. The competition 
for profit has thrust beauty out of our streets and 
houses, and especially out of our dress. At any 
other time the existing dress could be used for 
artistic purposes, only in this century has it been so 
degraded and vulgarized that it must be rigorously 
excluded where beauty is desired. But even if our 
dress consisted (as regards men) of something better 
than a jumble of battered black tubes, we could not 

Style in Relation to (lyfrch^eolog)! 

employ it in our treatment of ancient history. Every 
educated person now knows something about the 
costume of Egypt and Assyria, Greece and Rome j 
many know a good deal about them, and most of 
us take a keen interest in realizing past times. 
Our pictures and our books show this, and though 
archaeology is wholly unnecessary to decorative art 
as such, yet if it is to reflect our natural feelings 
we cannot entirely exclude this way of regarding our 
subjects, even if we would j but I do not admit that 
there is any reason why we should. 

From the moment that we exclude the primitive 
and wholesome custom of giving everything as we 
see it in our daily lives, we must either adopt some 
vague and colourless costume, that shall mark no 
particular place or period, or we must arbitrarily 
select some costume that we know to be false, or we 
must seek to give local colour and character to our 
work by giving the impressions we naturally form 
of the people we represent from such knowledge of 
them as we may possess. 

There are some traditions that it would be difficult 
to break, and which have constituted exceptions to 
the general rule in the past. 

Christ and His apostles have at all times been 
represented in simple tunics and mantles, such as 
may have been worn at almost any period, and it 
would be undesirable to depart from this long estab- 
lished custom ; but it would render our decorative 
art very monotonous were we to clothe all personages 
in the same way, and it would be scarcely rational 
to impose upon ourselves this self-denying ordinance, 
when we have at hand many costumes full of interest 
and character waiting" for us to make use of them. 
To injure the spirit of decorative work for the sake 


of such 
practice in 
a society 
with the 
of the past. 

ness of 
our subjects 
as we natu- 
rally con- 
ceive them. 

of Christ 

at nearly 
all periods. 

K % 


Stained Glass as an z^rt 

Style in Relation to Q^rchaology 133 

of archaeological accuracy would be very foolish, Folly of 
but not quite so foolish as to forgo anything which ''f^J^cting 
would add to its interest for fear of such accuracy, jg^j^, 

The story of Joseph (Fig. 1 9) will illustrate this costume 
point. Here are the two subjects on a larger scale where it 
(Fig. 42). We have unlimited evidence as to every ^The ^ 
variety of Egyptian costume, and marvellously full interest 
of character and interest it is. But we also have and 
abundant evidence from the same sources of the ^ecorative 
costume of their neighbours, whether allies or ^^01-^; 
enemies, and these also are full of variety and Examples 
distinctive features. The impressions formed in my of 'local 
mind of these people is determined by my familiarity costume^" 
with these images, and I should be consciously gcc, from 

violating my sense of fitness if I went out of my stained 

■ " " " glass 


way to clothe the persons represented in these panels S ^^^^ 

in some conventional and pointless garments, which 
I knew bore no resemblance to the clothing of their 
time and country. 

A more important case is that of a memorial to 
General Lee in Richmond, Virginia, for which I had 
to treat the subject of Moses leaving the court of 
Pharaoh, ' choosing rather to suffer afBiction with 
his people' (Fig. 43). 

Moses, as the adopted son of Pharaoh's daughter, 
was virtually an Egyptian prince, and would hold 
a state office. He is descending from an upper room 
in a royal pavilion, where Pharaoh is seated in 
council with his priests and officers, and is supposed 
to have his attention arrested by the ill-usage of his 
fellow-countrymen, who are working as slaves under 
the lash of merciless taskmasters. He has been 
brooding over the sufferings of the Israelites, and 
the scene he is now watching nerves him to a final 
resolve, and he casts away his staff of office as a sign 


Stained Glass as an z^rt 

here as 
in other 

of his determination to renounce all connexion with 
the persecutors of his people. Pharaoh's daughter, 
who is entering the pavilion with two of her 
maidens, perceives with apprehension the indignant 
attitude of her adopted son. 

I found the Egyptian architecture, costume, or- 
nament, &c., all lent themselves admirably to the 
development of interest in the material, and of 
the decorative quality of the work. Moreover, the 
scene presented itself to me naturally in that form, 
a form which must unquestionably be more interest- 
ing" to the large number of persons who are fami- 
liar with Egyptian statues and paintings than any 
artificial and arbitrary costume which I might 
haA'e invented in defiance of my knowledge and 

To some painters anything which savours of arch«- 
olog)^ is repugnant, possibly because some other 
painters make archeology take precedence of art 
in tlieir work, and if the anti-archeologists naturally 
think of the scenes they treat in costumes and 
surroundings derived from their own fancy, and 
not from what they know of the ways of the people 
they are representing, they are quite right to make 
their work accord with their conceptions. If they 
did otherwise, they would at any rate depart from 
what I have ventured to regard as a fundamental 
principle, namely, that every man's work should be 
the expression of his own feeling. If the work so 
conceived be a work of imagination and decorative 
beauty, I for one should infinitely prefer it to 
anything which lacked these first essentials, however 
correct in costume and details. But I could not 
admit that its merit consisted in or was promoted by 
its inaccuracy. 

Fig. 43. 




i* .,S^" STliMii" -., .-« ^MllA^ 

1 ? iT'^^^Wi 

I mi. ^m 


_____ __4 




s ^ii.. ^^ -^ i 









Br "^^^v^ -.'' • 











II' /M#^'^\ 




r,v ; 



^1 I ^M 



9 ■ \\mwAmm\y\v//;& ^ ; ,-- 


W^ j^tMM^MSfm^KB^^ 









"■-''^} ■■'■ 

-■% M 


.HEIGHT 10 FT. 6 IN.) 

From the glass. 

Style in Relation to z^rch^ology 

The principle that every 
painter should paint all 
subjects in the costume 
of his own time is in- 
telligible, but when this 
has become impossible I 
wholly fail to understand 
the principle which would 
allow or demand some sort 
of ancient costume, but 
with the proviso that it 
must be incorrect^ and must 
not correspond with our 
natural conception of the 
scene represented. 

I have already referred 
to the design (Fig. 34) in 
which the actual scene 
visible from Areopagus is 
given as background to 
the subject of Paul at 
Athens. I had designed 
the same theme more than 
once before, where the 
conditions of space were 
adverse to such a treatment 
(Fig. 44 is an example), 
but here the space was very 
broad, the means of realiz- 
ing the scene were at hand, 
and I found that such 
realization accorded per- 
fectly with my composition. 
Under these circumstances 

I could not feel that the 

Fig. 44. 

In church of Holy Trinity, Philadelphia. 

From small coloured slietch, 

{Height 15 ft. 3 m.) 


136 , Stained Glass as an z^rt 

correctness of this background must be regarded as 
a fatal bar to its adoption. 

On this as on all other aspects of our theme, 
I adhere to the principle that the decorative and 
technical beauty of the work must be our first aim, 
and that, with this object steadily kept in view, 
every man's art must be the unaffected expression of 
his own feeling. 


There are one or two matters which can be most 
conveniently considered in this connexion, whether 
they may be regarded strictly as questions of style 
or not. 
The human In most forms of art the human figure is the 
figu''^- subject of the highest aspirations of painter or 

sculptor. God's most perfect work, made in His 
own image, as the temple of the human spirit, has 
been the noblest object of reverent study to the 
great men of the past, to Phidias, Praxiteles, Signo- 
relli, Raphael, Michael Angelo, Titian, and all who 
rank as the first creators in art. 

How should the human figure be regarded in 
relation to stained glass ? It is hardly necessary 
to say that the question is chiefly a technical one j 
the nobility of the figure is the same in whatever 
relation it is considered, but it may be less sus- 
ceptible of artistic treatment in one material than 

Style in Relation to a few Special "Points 137 

If we refer to the best periods of stained glass, we The figure 
do not get much information, because at this time, "°*^ °^^^ 
when draughtsmanship was in its infancy, the figure [n^early *^ 
was to a great extent avoided. Giotto, for instance, art, 
never represented it, so far as I can recollect. He 
lived in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth 
centuries ; and it was not till late in the fifteenth 
century, when the power of drawing had greatly 
developed, that Botticelli and Signorelli made the 
figure an important element in their work. By 
this time stained glass was approaching its last 
stages. It consisted, moreover, chiefly of single 
figures of saints, who at this period were commonly 
represented as rather overloaded with drapery, so 
that little opportunity offered for treatment of 
the figure. 

But both in early and late glass, when such an but not 
opportunity did occur, it was utilized. There is avoided in 
a window in Chartres Cathedral, close to the one g^^^^y^here 
reproduced above, which illustrates the Creation, o^red." 
and is full of medallions about Adam and Eve. Chartres. 
The figures are in a rather warm flesh colour, upon 
ruby ground j the effect being admirable. The 
drawing is archaic, but full of spirit. 

In the Fairford glass, nearly 300 years later, there Fairford. 
is a temptation in which the Eve is very gracefully 
drawn. At this period, when white glass was much 
in favour, even the flesh was painted on white, but 
in neither case does the artist appear to have felt 
any technical difficulty in the matter. Nor is there 
any reason why, in an isolated case, on a rather 
small scale, such difficulty should be felt. 

The reason why the question has to be considered 
and experiments tried, is because one of the great 
beauties of glass consists in its glitter, which is rather 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 

promoted by crisp workmanship and small detail, 
such as folds in drapery, than by the representation 
of comparatively smooth surfaces. The colour also 
of tiesh can only be rendered by a simple tint, though 
the modelling can be given to perfection. It follows 
that the treatment of the ' Resurrection ' and of the 













^ m^' mM 



H r;,>«E,; 





i_A |Vk 

mr^T-f^^M^: K\ 

— '■ "fl 

■ -Sm^^ 


i t'W' \/ 4 


W MijMX^ 

i \ 4 

yy^t i^ 




SrWST^\wmtr-m...;:m^^'. tt^m 

^W' 'yr'^^-^^'^^ 

Fig. 4.5. 

From Grace Chnrch, New York. From ihe glass. {Height \fl. 4 hi.') 

<■ Reception of the Blest ' in Luca Signorelli's mag- 
nificent frescoes at Orvieto, would in glass present 
a problem (I do not say an insoluble problem), on 
account of the large number of naked figures they 

I The necessity of much colour in any window on 
account of its situation, or of the character of the 

Style in Relation to a fei4/ Special "Points 

neighbouring windows, would of course preclude 
such a treatment, but on technical grounds 1 see no 
reason for excluding 
one of the noblest 
subjects an artist can 
treat where other 
considerations would 
favour or require 
it. Even glitter in 
glass, beautiful as it 
is, would become 
monotonous if it 
prevailed equally 
everywhere, and the 
particular kind of 
texture and surface 
offered by the re- 
presentation of the 
human figure has a 
value of its own^ 
technically, among 
objects with stronger 
colours and more 
sharply defined light 
and shade. 

Here is a group 
in which an atten- 
dant is liberating 
Lazarus from his 
graveclothes, in re- 
sponse to the com- 


tions of 
colour and 

Fig. 47. 


difficulty in 
the figure 
in a:lass. 

Lazarus. . 

mandi' Loose him and let him go' (Fig. 4;). The 
attendant is represented with little clothing, that 
his swarthy skin may contrast with the paleness of 
the man who is newly risen from the grave. 

140 Stained Glass as an o^rt 

Enoch, Here are three figures (Fig. 46) taken from 

Moses, and bi^ck and white cartoons, which do not therefore 
show the tone of the draperies, which are in power- 
ful colours, and the shadows in the flesh appear 
somewhat darker in the photograph than in the 
glass, but these examples and the Samson (Fig. 47) 
will suffice perhaps to show that the representation 
of the human figure in glass does not involve baldness 
of technique. 

Repre- Qn page 31, in a footnote, 1 mentioned that it 

^f"texture ^o^^*^ ^e necessary to qualify the statement that 
in o^lass. gl^ss, like sculpture, cannot imitate those qualities of 
colour and workmanship which give such interest 
to the works of the great painters. This is true, 
but the qualification is this, that glass can give great 
variety of texture, and that these textures, when 
they do not pretend to be realistic imitations, give 
great technical charm to the material. Different 
degrees of gentle gradation or sharp transition of 
light and shade, of delicate or rugged execution, 
will suggest (though they do not realize) natural 
surfaces of materials like marble, rough-hewn stone, 
metal (such as plate armour or chain mail), fur, and 
other stuffs of strongly marked textures, foliage, 
large or small, &c., and any or all of these may 
be employed by the artist to promote the tech- 
nical interest of his material, or may be degraded 
by the philistine in the hopeless attempt to make 

Fig. 46. 


From black and "white carfoojis. 


Style in Relation to a few Special Taints 141 

The representation of angels demands some notice AngeJs. 

This is not strictly a matter of style, but it would 
not have been easy to incluae the point under any 
other head. 

All representations of angels are necessarily sym- Their 
bolic (wings, for instance, are impossible anatomically, represen- 
but are expressive symbols of free movement) ; and necessarily 
it would therefore be in a high degree irrational for symbolic. 
any man to pronounce as to their treatment whether 
It should be in this or that style. I only offer what 
I have to say on the subject for the reader's con- 
sideration, and for what it is worth. 

Angels are described in the Bible as God's mes- 
sengers and agents, and, since they are referred to 
as existing before man, must not be confounded with 
risen human beings ; at the same time the words 
' Ye shall be as the angels ' may fairly justify 
a generally similar treatment m our symbolic repre- 
sentations of them. 

Now a custom arose in the middle ages of clothing Medieval 
angels in ecclesiastical vestments. The intention is ^.ngeis in 
obvious. The angels were a hierarchy of God's ^-j,^) 
ministers in heaven ; the priesthood was a hier- vestments. 
archy of God's ministers on earth, and the insignia of 
the earthly ministry were employed as symbols of the 

This was quite natural at the time, but as a per- Objections 
manent practice it appears to me to be open to very ^o mam- 
grave objections. It is a part of the system which Qf^hL'^^ 
regarded everything in the garb of its own time, practice. 
It does not appear in the early glass so far as I can 
remember ; there is nothing of it in tlie Chartres 
window, but it is prominent in fourteenth and fif- 
teenth-century work. Giotto's angels wear albs, but 


of drawing 
who existed 
before the 
Creation in 
only in- 
^,000 years 
after it. 

of repre- 
beings in 

Stained Glass as an oyTrt 

later on copes were added, and the same garments 
are common in the glass of the same periods. Does 
it not seem reasonable that when the custom of 
dressing the people of all ages and countries in the 
costume of our own time has been entirely dropped, 
this habit of clothing angels in fourteenth-century 
ecclesiastical vestments should go with it ? To repre- 
sent Pharaoh's soldiers crossing the Red Sea as 
crusaders sitting sideways in little square carts ^, or 
to dress Abraham meeting Melchizedec after the 
battle m an elegant suit of Italian armour ^, is quaint 
though quite characteristic of the time, but to clothe 
archangels, who are supposed to have existed long 
before the Creation, in an elaborate costume, which 
never came into use till many centuries after Christ, 
appears to be such an extreme strain of the mediaeval 
way of looking at things, that when it had once 
disappeared it was a pity to revive it. 

Moreover, it is a material way of treating celestial 
things, which goes far beyond anthropomorphism. 
Much of the attack upon anthropomorphism that 
one meets with in metaphysical writers appears to 
me to be exaggerated and mistaken j man's spirit 
must be derived from God's spirit, and is our only 
means of forming a conception of Him. It is limited, 
but a limited view is not false unless we mistake it 
for the whole. Man's body is not merely the 
clothing or envelope of his spirit, it is the outward 
expression of it which has grown and developed with 
it, and m the portrayal of celestial beings we can 
but give exalted human beings as symbols of those 
that are beyond our ken. But to extend this to our 
clothes, and to give these spiritual beings not merely 

' In the carving over the stalls in the Chapter House, Salisbury. 
^ Benozzo Gozzoli, in the Campo Santo Pisa. 

Style in Relation to a few Special Toints 1+3 

garments, but a highly elaborate and special form Extension 
of costume, may be symbolism, but seems to be j^^J^y *^° 

/^■^f^^ /y'^^^^sP' a narrow 

x^>?#r and un- 

%^^JM " elevating 


Fig. 48. 

a narrow form of symbolism, which serves to lower 
rather than elevate our conceptions. 

Symbols also ought 
not to clash with each 
other, and when we have 
given angels wings to 
convey to the eye the 
impression of free and 
rapid movement, it is 
surely an artistic blunder 
(not to put it more 
strongly) to clothe them 
in such weighty garments 
that the wings become 
futile, and merely orna- 
mental appendages. 

Compare these angels 
from Orgagna (Fig. 48), 
and Van Eyck (Fig. 49). 

The great painters 
soon dropped this aggressively material symbolism, 

Fig. 45). 

gruity of 
wings and 

and Van 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 




by the 



ment of 
in the 

tion of the 

mation of 
the process. 

which appears to me to be quite out of harmony 
with the best modern thought. 

There is an aspect of this subject about which it 
may be worth while to say a few words. 

Is the human body exclusively animal in its 
nature ? I cannot feel that the best spiritual or 
scientific teaching exhibits it in this light. 

The history of the human being, studied in the 
light of evolution, shows a gradual diversion of 
the organs of the body from animal to spiritual 
functions ; the eyes, ears, and mouth, aided by the 
limbs, which in the early organic forms existed only 
to search for food and devour it, or to shun danger, 
have gradually learned higher offices. In the lower 
races these have only a rudimentary development, 
but in the purest examples of the higher human 
races the animal functions are wholly subordinate ; 
they cannot be dispensed with, but are only a means 
to an end. The eyes and ears are occupied in the 
reception of impressions of any degree of elevation, 
whether intellectual, emotional, or (to use a more 
comprehensive term) spiritual ; and the mouth is 
employed in giving expression to the thoughts and 
emotions thus received j and we have only to suppose 
this gradual change of function to reach its con- 
summation m order to conceive a wholly spiritual 
being in the very likeness of man. 

So long as there remains the grosser matter, which 
needs material food and protection from material 
evils, there will remain the struggle for material 
well-being, which hinders the full development and 
expression of our spiritual nature, but with the 
decay of what St. Paul calls the ' corruptible body,' 
may we not conceive that the spiritual body, which 
has been germinating within this coarser shell or 

Style in Relation to a few Special Joints x\^ 

husk, may be a true and nobler antitype, purged of 
all that tended to lower it, and free to exercise 
unhampered those spiritual functions which constitute 
already nearly all the lives of the best. 

It may be objected that the analogy is false. Answer to 
because the gradual diversion of our organs from PofsiWe 
animal to spiritual functions has taken place in to this 
the race, not in the individual, whereas the view. 
consummation is here supposed to take place in 
the individual j but I deny the grounds of the 
objection. It is well known that each individual 
traces in the embryo the history of the race in its 
development from the lower organisms, and it is 
a sound analogy which supposes that each individual 
may in like manner attain to the consummation. 

It can hardly be necessary to say that this specu- 
lation is not offered as anything that is or can be 
demonstrable, but that it does not appear to be at 
variance with spiritual or scientific teaching, and, 
while recognizing that man at his highest is but 
'a little lower than the angels,' it gives something 
like a rational basis for the necessarily anthropo- 
morphic representations of angels in works of art. 

William Blake's angels in his 'Job,' where he Blake's 
illustrates the words, ' The sons of God shouted for angels. 
joy,' are to me a truly noble conception (Fig. f o). 

The drapery in these is scarcely perceptible, and 
seems as if a part of themselves. If we must yield 
to the long-established tradition which represents 
angels as wearing garments, these should at least 
suggest as little as possible materials bought at a 
shop and made up. It may not be possible in a mate- 
rial like glass to convey anything so impalpable as 
the drapery of Blake's angels, but at least we can 
avoid overweighting them with masses of heavy 

1+6 Stained Glass as an zyfrt 

clothing. Even symbols should help, not hinder, 
the imagination. 
Examples. The two or three examples here given are not 

j^Vl\M rt\r 'inji'ning Stars iang toget-hcr, <«; all tiiei 
JiL-5'uns ol God skoulcJ. for ioy '"'\ 

►i5>iv..Ouns olUod shouicJ. tor loy "|^>;:i«i^ 

FxG. 50. 

put forward as models, but simply as showing how 
I endeavour to carry out the conception I have 
described (Figs, ji and 5-2). 

Fig. 5t. 



From black and whife cartoons. 

Fig. 52. 


(figures 3 FT.) 

From black and •white cai'foojis. 

Influence of Form and Space 






B Jw^jM 




^j'llk x %'^'/ Te/ 


jHY do these limitations ele- 
vate rather than depress the 
imagination ? 

The subject is subtle and 
by no means easy to treat 
briefly, but I will do my best 
to convey what I feel about it. 
In the first place, one toler- 
ably obvious effect of these 
limitations will strike us. When we paint a picture 
in a frame, we regard the frame as an opening- 
through which we are contemplating an actual 
scene, and as the power of imitating natural objects 
realistically increased, this way of regarding a picture 
became more and more fixed. 

Now spandrils of arches or windows can hardly 
be looked upon in this way. The idea that the 
incident is going on outside the church, perhaps 
thirty or forty feet above the ground, and that we 
are looking at it through the window, does not occur 
to us ; we regard the window or spandril as an 
essential part of the architecture. 

The result is that we instinctively think of any- 
thing represented in such a space as symbolic rather 
than realistic. We may realize as much as we please 
for beauty, but not for realism, not for illusion, not 

L Z 

as actual 
scene con- 
through an 

spaces not 
in this 

tive art 
as sym- 


Stained Glass as an oyTrt 

and thus 
from the 
of realism. 

of decora- 
tive art 
and those 
of rhythm 
and metre. 

to persuade the spectator that he is contemplating 
an actual scene. Now so soon as we find ourselves 
freed from this last impression, we are at once able 
to give expression to an unlimited range of ideas, 
almost impossible of representation in a realistic 
picture. Combinations which would be hopelessly 
mcongruous in a realistic picture are perfectly- 
reasonable in a symbolic painting, and the expression 
of lofty spiritual conceptions by means of beautiful 

Fig. j?. 

Plan of a tree by the' cleric of the worh. From Prof. Rvsiin's ' Modern Painters,' Vol. V '. 

forms aifords a scope to the imagination almost 
closed by ordinary pictorial art. 

But there is, in my opinion, a yet higher reason 
for this elevating influence in the limitations we are 
considering, a reason closely allied to that which 
makes rhythm and metre more congenial to the 
expression of the loftiest thoughts than prose. 

^ Inserted by permission of the author, Prof. Ruskin, and the 
pubhsher, Mr. Geo. Allen. 

Influence of Form and Space 149 

This question of rhythm in poetry is a profoundly 
interesting one. Why should the loftiest thoughts 
seek rhythm, a limitation, as a desirable condition 
of their expression ? 

There is a diagram in Professor Ruskin's Modern Ruskin's 
Painters^ described as a plan of a tree by the clerk diagram. 
of the works. It serves there to illustrate admirably 
a botanical point. 1 venture to use it here for 
another purpose (Fig. fB). The reader will notice that Under- 
the stem and branches divide and redivide on one j^^^S 

J , . ■ ■ 1 1 • harmony 

constant and harmonious principle, resulting, never- producino- 
theless, at the extremities of the branches in apparent resultant. 
confusion and dissonance. In the centre are harmony 
and order — on the surface conflict, entanglement, and 
obscurity. A person placed above such a tree, and 
seeing only the extremities of the twigs, would be 
able to perceive no order or principle in their dis- 
position, but if he could follow each twig downward, 
he would find they all led to the same original stem. 

Does not this world present a like contrast ? Do Similar 
we not find underlying principles based upon con- contrast 
stant and harmonious laws ? And do we not find ^y ^^^ 
that the deeper we penetrate into the heart of things world. 
the profounder is the harmony, the more clear and 
simple the law, and yet in our daily lives and on 
the surface we experience conflict, entanglement, and 
obscurity 1 > 

Before applying this contrast between fundamental Rhythm in 
harmony and resultant complexity to the solution '"o'lo"- 
of the question before us concerning rhythm in 

1 In the drawing some branches appear to clash which need not 
do so necessarily, because they are presented on a plane. In three 
dimensions they would not clash. May it be that a fourth dimen- 
sion would relieve nature of her conflicts, and that this is one of 
the conditions of a higher stage of existence. 


Stained Glass as an zyfrt 

poetry and the rhythmic conditions of architectonic 
art, let me ask the reader for a few moments to 
consider rhythm itself in its widest significance. 
Any who have read Herbert Spencer's First Prin- 
ciples will remember his truly noble chapter on 
Universal ' The Rhythm of Motion ' as a universal law of 
law of matter when acted on by different forces. He shows 
ITctecroii ^^^^ t\\e?,e forces alternately get the upper hand ; 
by different a minute Stream of water issumg from an aperture 
forces. does not fall through the air in a fine thread, but 
in detached drops, cohesion and gravitation asserting 
their power alternately. In a slightly larger stream 
the water will form little wreaths of spray ; with 
a greater volume it comes m waves ; m Niagara in 
mighty masses pressing upon each other with terrific 
weight and velocity, but with a clearly marked 
rhythm both m the plunging torrent and in the 
clouds of spray shot upwards from the rocks below. 
The same law is conspicuous m waves. From the 
Atlantic rollers to the minutest ripple the alternate 
supremacy of the wind pressure and of gravitation is 
apparent in the rise and fall of the water. 

And that which is true of the smaller phenomena 
on the surface of our globe is equally so of the 
great cosmic movements, whether of the members ot 
our solar system or of remote binary stars. 

A planet or a comet alternately asserts its tendency 
to fly off into space, and, having exhausted itself by 
the time it reaches its aphelion, yields to the potent 
gravitating force of the sun, and rushes into its 
perihelion, once more with renewed energy to start 
on its outward journey. Finally, the greatest 
rhythmic alternation of which we have cognizance 
is the birth and decay of a planetary system : its 
growth from the nebula, its decay by loss of heat, 

Influence of Form and Space i^i 

and the ultimate precipitation of the dead planets 
into their cold and darkened sun, with a shock 
which, by the heat it evolves, evaporates the whole 
and produces a fresh nebula. 

From the inconceivably rapid vibrations of a ray 
of light to this mighty pulsation, whose beats are 
counted in millions of years, rhythmic alternation 
is the universal condition, the law to which all 
movements of matter must conform. But we must 
remember that rhythm may be regular or irregular. Regular 
that the deeper fundamental rhythms are regular, ^"'^ ^^- 
the superficial complications irregular, and that j-whm 
regular vibrations make musical tones, irregular ones Deep, 
make noise. Is it not clear, then, if we would regular 
penetrate beneath the surface— if we would probe ^y™'" 
the depths of human life, of human passion, of musical 
human joy and sorrow — if we would touch the tones, 
mysteries of our being, we must place ourselves in Superficial, 
accord with the deeper laws which rule the universe ? ^I'thm^'^ 
On the surface we see apparent confusion, a conflict makes 
of rhythms so complex that no rhythm is discernible, "oise. 
The poet penetrates below the surface, he ceases to l!™^"??'^ 
hear the babel of the every-day world, his ears are neecTto be 
opened to the marv^ellous harmonies that underlie it, in accord 
and, if he would tell what he hears, he must do so ^^^^'^ P™- 
musically : he has no choice. re"ula'r 

And as it is with the singer, so with the listener, musical' 
Let him hear the rhythmic fall of melodious verse, rhythm. 
and the jarring discords of the workaday world will 
begin to vanish from his mind, his spirit will be 
attuned to lofty thoughts, and he will respond eagerly 
to what in prose would be unintelligible. 

Is it not for this reason that music speaks to the Conse- 
soul more directly than other arts ? Is it not because quf"* 
it gives us pure harmonies and pure rhythm, undis- of^j^ysic ^ 


Stained Glass as an riArt 

Same laws 
in all arts. 
in archi- 

belong to 
this higher 

turbed even by the necessity of drawing its images 
from the outer world > 

From music and poetry to other arts is an easy 
transition. The same laws hold good for all. Can 
we doubt, when in a noble cathedral we feel some- 
thing like awe in contemplating its mighty propor- 
tions, that the solemn impression is largely due to 
the rhythmic order in the succession of its divisions 
and subdivisions ; and is it not the same with all 
architectonic art > 

Harmony of proportion first, and with it, and 
essential to it, rhythmic succession of harmonies. 

What a cathedral is to a street, what a Gregorian 
chant is to the babble of general conversation, what 
a pediment of the Parthenon is to an irregular 
assemblage of statues on pedestals, that is a great 
piece of architectonic painting, such as the ceiling 
of the Sistine Chapel or that over the high altar 
of the lower church at Assisi, to a picture gallery. 

No lower than this should be the aim of the 
designer of stained glass. Its association with archi- 
tecture ought to give it great opportunities, and 
occasionally it does so, but too often the individual 
designer has to deal with a single window in a series 
treated by different hands, so that he is only able to 
consider his work as an isolated design and not as 
a part of a connected composition. 

Where the single window is itself comprehensive 
in design (as in Figs. x6 and 30), this is of less 
importance, as it contains within itself the oppor- 
tunities for rhythmic treatment. Such as these, or 
a series of similar spaces like those in Fig. 29, are 
dear to the heart of the true decorative artist, 


E have considered <■ Stained Glass Stained 

as an Art,' from various points S^^^^ ^^ 
r • J • • 1 an art. 

or view, and in various rela- 
tions, but it has always been 
'as an art.' Material and 
technique have only been dwelt 
on so far as their consideration 
was essential to a right under- 
standing of the artistic side of 
the subject, and archaeology has been touched upon 
in the same spirit j that is to say, the state of the 
art at early periods has been referred to purely 
to illustrate its artistic beauties and to show what 
qualities led to its growth and development, and 
what qualities caused its decay. 

My chief aim has been to show what are the true How to 
lessons we may learn from the noble art of the past, 
and how we may apply those lessons to the present. 
I hope it has been made clear that the worst misuse past and 
we can make of the beautiful works which remain apply them 
to us from mediaeval times is to defy their principles 
and to make servile imitations of their manner. In 
those ages all men expressed their own thoughts in 
their own manner, they never entertained the idea 
of aping the appearance of earlier work, consequently 
all their work was genuine, and is a lasting delight 
to lovers of art in our day. 

It is our part now to follow this example of 

from the 

to the 


Stained Glass as an zyfrt 

Use of 
symbols as 
labels, not 
as substi- 
tutes for 

sincerity, and to express our own thoughts in our own 
manner, if we would be true to ourselves and to our 
art, and if our work is to earn that respect from 
after-ages which we pay to the work of the past. 
Sy-m.bolism. There is one matter not yet dealt with in this 
essay to which I must make brief reference in these 
concluding remarks, and that is symbolism. 

There was a pregnant sentence in a letter I received 
the other day from Dr. Kitchin, the Dean of Dur- 
ham. It was this, ' Of all dead things the deadest 
and most otfensive is a dead symbolism.' 

A traditional symbol of long standing may be 
used as a hieroglyph, as a label, but it must not 
be used as a substitute for imagination. All the 
old symbolism can be learnt by heart and applied 
mechanically with wearisome iteration, and is so 
applied in commercial glass, but if a man has some- 
thing to say which is worth saying he will not have 
recourse to worn-out and hackneyed platitudes, 
which in art as in speech are only employed by those 
who are 'gravelled for lack of matter,' and have to 
draw or talk to order. 

Here is an example (Fig. 5-4) in which having to 
design three chancel windows with the subjects Life, 
Death, and Resurrection, I associated with these the 
figures of Faith, Hope, and Love, the connection 
being illustrative of the words ' Live by Faith,' ' The 
righteous has Hope in his Death,' and ' Made perfect 
in Love.' 

Fig. J J- is the east window of the church attached 
to St. Luke's Hospital, New York, the theme being 
'Christ the Consoler,' with the Seven Acts of Mercy 
in the circles above. The groups of sufferers are 
rather types than symbols, but attention may be 
called to the archangels Gabriel and Michael who 



stand as supporters on either side of the throne \ the 
former, who announced the birth of the Saviour, 

Fig. 54. 

Frnm windows in the apse of the Mall Church, Notting Hill. 
{Height Sft. From the glass.) 

appears as the bringer of good, with the accompanying 
words ' Immanuel, God with us ' j the latter, who 
overcame the Devil, as the hanisher of evil, with the 

i5(f Stained Glass as an z^rt 

words ' Deliver us from evil.' The next illustration 
is from the naked studies for this design (Fig. jd), 
and the draped study for one of the figures is added 

(Fig. 17). 

Fig. y6. 

Here, as in every other aspect of this and of all 
forms of art, the one golden rule is to let our work 
be the fullest expression of our own genuine thought 
and feeling, in the best language at our command. 

All good work is modern work when it is produced. 









Fig. 5sh. 

^li^^SSi'lS^.V" 'm^r-'-liW i 


Fro II the smalt coloured sketch. 



Giotto was intensely modern, so was Botticelli, so 
was Signorelli, so was Michael Angelo. When art 
was robust and in vigorous health, no one thought 
even of keeping up the style of the preceding century, 
much less of harking back to an obsolete style of 
several centuries before. 

In stained glass we have a noble and an enduring 
material \ a material with a strong individuality of 
its own and possessing beauties all its own j a material 

All good 
work is 



^, ;-;^ 

and indi- 
viduality of 
glass as 
an artistic 

Fig. 5-7. 

fit for elevated art and for high purpose, unsuitable 
indeed for light and ephemeral work. The strange 
infatuation so generally prevalent that it should be 
mediaeval has kept too many of the best artists from 
having anything to do with it (happily not all, 
as the beautiful designs at the end of this essay 
will show) j and some who were not misled by this 
error have fallen into the equally fatal blunder of 
imitating oil-paintings. Between these two pernicious 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 

which have 

means of 
saving it, 
the educa- 
tion of the 

errors, one striking at the root of all art, the other 
at the root of all technical art, stained glass has been 
passing throvigh a perilous experience. The few 
artists who have designed for it have succeeded in 
keeping the art alive, and the specimens of their 
work which two of them have kindly allowed me 
to reproduce are such as the nineteenth century 
may be proud of But there is only one thing 
that can save our cathedrals and churches from 
further desecration, and that is the education of 
the general public. 

One individual cannot expect to do very much 
towards this end, but it is in the liope of helping, in 
however small a degree, to promote such education, 
that these pages have been written. 

By the time people of general cultivation in other 
directions have learnt, when dealing with this 
particular subject, to distingaiish art from manu- 
facture, and genuine work from shams, we may hope 
to see the windows of our public buildings exhibit 
qualities worthy of their situation and of a material 
whose beautv is excelled by none known to the 
technical arts. 


American Glass 

A NEW departure in stained glass was made in 
America some years ago, of which my readers may 
like to hear some account. 

Mr. John Lafarge, an artist of great ability, 
devoted to decorative work, turned his attention 
to stained glass, and, finding it almost impossible to 
obtain the quality of execution he wanted on the 
glass, made experiments with the material itself, 
which produced some very beautiful results. 

By the introduction of opalescent qualities, by 
letting the colours run into one another, and by 
twisting and flattening the glass while still soft, he 
obtained a great many varied and graduated colours. 
The twisting of the glass gave also creases and ridges 
somewhat resembling drapery. 

With these qualities of material at his disposal, 
Mr. Lafarge conceived the idea of eliminating 
altogether painting on the glass (1 am giving the 
account as Mr. Lafarge gave it to me), with the view 
of preserving in its greatest purity the transparency 
and brilliancy of the colours, and at the same time 
not sacrificing the light and shade which is wanting 
in the glass at Pisa. 

The idea was conceived and carried out in a purely 
artistic spirit, and 1 examined with much interest 
a large number of windows executed on this principle 

i6o Stained Glass as an oyTrt 

in America, many of which possess great beauty and 
are genuine works of art when taken on their own 

I examined this work with an open mind, quite 
prepared to adopt anything which promised to add 
beauty to an art in which I was so greatly interested ; 
but after giving the subject the fullest consideration, 
I found myself quite unattracted by the method. 

To put the matter as concisely as possible, it 
substitutes accident for design. The only part of the 
design which it leaves completely under the control 
of the artist is the shape of the separate pieces of 
glass, and therefore the leads which unite these and 
form the chief outlines in stained glass. Any lines 
of draperies, &c., within these, and all shadows, 
depend absolutely on what the artist can find in the 
accidents of his materials that will approximately 
suit his purpose. 

But approximation of this kind, though it may 
suffice for small ornamental work, such as inlaid 
furniture, or a table top in Florentine mosaic, is, 
in my opinion, wholly inadequate for monumental 
decorative art. 

Accident, where art is concerned, is a useful 
servant, but is the worst possible master. 

After what has been said about the supreme 
importance of form in stained glass, it will be well 
understood that a system which deprives the artist 
of all control over form, except in the leads, must 
be unacceptable to me. 

A glance at any of the designs in this book will 
show at once how impossible it would be to execute 
any of them by a method which excludes workman- 
ship on the glass, and what havoc it would make 
of the design and form in them if these could only 

(LAmertcan Glass i6i 

be conveyed by such accidental streaks and creases 
as chance might supply in the material at hand. 
Moreover, the artist would soon find that his servi- 
tude to accident would not stop here ; it would 
extend to the outer contours and leads. For the 
impossibility of making his forms intelligible within 
the leads will compel him to treat these outer lines, 
not simply from the point of view of design, but so 
as to make their meaning clear. 

It became evident, after looking at a number of 
these windows, that design had become a secondary 
matter in them as regards form, and that effects of 
colour alone were aimed at. But even as colour 
I could not feel that the work was successful. 

1. In the first place, the faces, hands, and feet 
could not be managed by the accidents in the glass, 
and had to be painted j and as the tone of the 
whole was usually very deep, the flesh had to be 
powerfully shaded. The result was a striking in- 
congruity between the flesh and all the rest, this 
being the only painted part in the window. 

2. In spite of the transparency of the glass it 
failed to glitter. Only designed light and shade 
and the deliberate touch of the artist's work can do 
this j only the crisp edge and gentle gradation which 
are given with intention^ and come from the mind 
of the artist, can interest the spectator. 

The varieties in the material itself are too vague 
and pointless to have any charm, and the lack of 
crispness and definition deprives the glass of glitter 
and sparkle, but if the accidents were more sharply 
defined it would be impossible to use them. It is 
only by the absence of all defined form, that is, 
of all interest of detail, that accidental tones are 
rendered available. The sense of this defect has 


i6z Stained Glass as an (L/frt 

occasioned the use of a great many very thin leads 
to serve as intermediate outlines, but this is only an 
imperfect cure. 

3. The same difficulty atfects the tone of the 
windows as a whole. The impossibility of getting 
any sufficient variety of depth and texture into light 
colours makes them look thin and weak 5 conse- 
quently, in order to make the window rich enough, 
deep colours have to be so largely used that in many 
cases light is quite excluded. 

I have described the beauty of the material pro- 
duced under Mr. Lafarge's directions, as a result of 
his experiments. It is really full of charm in itself, 
and, wishing to see whether it was susceptible of 
such treatment as might not interfere with the 
prime necessity of decorative art. Design, I wrote 
to Mr. Lafarge to ask if I could obtain some of it. 
He replied very kindly that he was glad to hear 
I thought of trying it, and that he had given 
instructions to the makers of the glass to supply me 
with what I wanted. Accordingly I ordered a suf- 
ficient quantity of ditferent colours to enable me to 
make efficient experiments. To my great disappoint- 
ment I received a case of glass, most of which was 
like imitation marble, some so dark that the light 
hardly penetrated through it, and a very few pieces 
that were beautiful in colour. I wrote for an 
explanation, and received for answer that ' The glass 
has deteriorated as the market for it increased. . . . 
The corrugations you speak of are very undesirable, 
but the manufacturers say the market demands it.' 
It appears then that ' trade art ' is at the bottom 
of the mischief there as here. 

As Mr. Lafarge is an artist in the truest sense, 
I conclude he insists on the qualities lie requires, and 

Q^mertcan Glass i<?3 

which I saw in his windows, but that the firm who 
makes it will only supply inferior glass to others, 
because there is no demand sufficient to induce them 
to keep it in stock. 

I much regret this, as I see no objection to the use 
of many of the colours in backgrounds, or in any 
way which leaves the artist absolutely unfettered in 
his design from beginning to end. 

I have so high a respect for Mr. Lafarge's artistic 
abilities and purity of aim, that I regret to have to 
differ from him in judgment. I felt that a treatise 
on stained glass would be incomplete which did not 
deal with this important new departure, and the 
principles to which I strongly adhere rendered it 
impossible for me to assent to it as a method ; I had 
therefore no choice but to show the genuine respect 
I feel for Mr. Lafarge and his work by a perfectly 
frank recognition of the beauties of the material he 
has invented, and of the difficulties which appear to 
me to lie in the way of its general use in decorative 

The very defects of the system constitute, in fact, 
a testimony to the powers of the artist who, in spite 
of them, has succeeded in producing results under it 
possessing so much beauty and interest. 

M t 

id4 Stained Glass as an (Lyfrt 

Opus Sectile (Opaque Stained Glass) 

This form of decorative art should, from the point 
of view of its purpose and destination, be inckided 
rather in a work on mosaic j but as its methods bear 
no resemblance to mosaic proper, and are almost 
identical with those of stained glass, I thought it 
desirable to describe it briefly here. 

I understand that it was suggested by a form of 
inlaid marble work practised by Roman artists, but 
in its present form it consists of pieces of opaque 
coloured glass, cut into the required shapes, with 
lines and tones painted on them and fired, exactly 
corresponding to those in stained glass. But these 
are laid in a bed of cement upon a wall, instead of 
being united by leads to form a window. 

The diiFerence between this work and mosaic 
proper will be at once evident. In ordinary mosaic 
the forms and colours are entirely obtained by the 
insertion in the cement of small tesserse of coloured 
pottery of a vitreous character. There is no work 
on these enamels, and it is only by the varieties in 
them that forms, tints, and shadows are expressed. 
In the opus sectile^ the broad distinctions of colour 
are obtained by the varieties in the material, but the 
forms and shadows are painted on the surface, so 
that 'opaque stained glass' is a more accurately 

opus Sectile (Opaque Stained Glass) 165 

descriptive name for this branch of decorative art 
than 'mosaic' 

Messrs. Powell & Sons have produced some 
admirable glass for this purpose, possessing great 
charm of colour and surface, and 1 hope when its 
proper use is understood it may be much used as 
a very durable form of wall decoration. 

Opus sectile has been a good deal misused at 
present, owing to the facility it offers for painting 
the surface with enamel colours, which strike at the 
root of its native beauty as much as in transparent 
stained glass, and produce an effect somewhat like 
poor china painting. 

When treated broadly and simply in its natural 
colours, with very little work on the surface, the 
material has a dignity and a certain severity which 
render it peculiarly suitable for mural decoration. 
This dig-nity is entirely destroyed by enamel painting, 
which gives it a prettified appearance, and wholly 
unfits it for any serious purpose. 

Opus sectile cannot compare with mosaic proper 
for richness and splendour of colour, but it is 
available where mosaic would be out of place. 
Mosaic can only be used, or ought only to be used 
on a large scale, and at a considerable distance from 
the eye. Opus sectile can be successfully treated on 
as small a scale as stained glass, and looks well at any 

Moreover, mosaic is, from the elaborate nature of 
the process, the most costly kind of decoration, while 
opus sectile, from the simplicity of the method of 
working it, costs less than stained glass. 

The illustration (Fig. 5-8) is from a piece of this 
work, in which the figure is life size, treated in 
accordance with the above views. 


Stained Glass as an o^rt 

Fig. 58. 

Angel of judgment , Figure life size. From eke opus sectile. 






There is a story told of a bishop at a Royal 
Academy dinner who, after expatiating upon the 
beauties of the works which surrounded him, con- 
soled those artists whose inferiority excluded them 
from so honoured a position by reminding them that 
there still remained for them the wide field of deco- 
rative art. It was the common view of the time 
that the branch of art to which Raphael and Michael 
Angelo devoted their highest powers was now the 
proper field for the outcasts from the R. A. and the 
hirelings of the shops. 

It is one of the most encouraging signs of the 
times that in the present day such men as Sir Edward 
Burne- Jones and Mr. Richmond give their time not 
merely to decorative painting, but to designing for 
such technical arts as stained glass, mosaic, gesso, &c. 
Many others might of course be named, such as the 
late Ford Madox Brown, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, the 
present President of the Royal Academy, Mr. Walter 
Crane, &c., &c. 

The following designs, beside their intrinsic merits, 
are interesting from the contrast of style and treat- 

1(^8 Stained Glass as an <LArt 

ment they exhibit j those by Sir E. Burne- Jones 
consisting exclusively of figure-subjects, while Mr. 
Richmond's are purely decorative, the figures them- 
selves forming part of a symmetrical composition in 
which a rich foliated pattern is the leading feature. 

Figs. f9, (5o, and 6\ are from the cartoons for the 
large windows in the apse of St. Philip's Church, 
Birmingham. Fig. 62. was taken direct from the 
windows themselves, expressly for this work. The 
subjects are, as will be seen, the Nativity, Crucifixion, 
and Ascension, the latter being the central and largest 
window. The position of the first window of the 
series renders it impossible to get a good photograph 
of it, owing to some buildings behind, but the 
details of the obscure parts can be supplied from the 
cartoon. Any lover of decorative art who wishes 
to know what can be done in the matter of stained 
glass in the present day, should make an effort to see 
these noble windows. They were executed at the 
works of the late William Morris, that marvellous 
master of the technical arts who did so much to 
beautify our homes and our daily life, and whose 
irreparable loss we all mourn. 

The beauty of these designs speaks for itself, and 
needs no words of mine to commend it to the reader's 
notice, but unfortunately the glowing splendour of 
the colour is not here presentable. 

I should like to call attention to the keen decora- 
tive sense which has enabled the artist to convey his 
subjects in so full and picturesque a manner without 
ever verging on that pictorial realism so strongly 
deprecated in this essay. In the Nativity, the arched 
rock-work, the gravelly ground, the sheep, the bare 
trees, are all rendered with truth and charm, and 
with just so much light and shade as makes them 

Fig. 59. 


Fro7ii the cartoon by Sir Ed-ward Biirne-Jonesfor a chancel whidotu 
at St. Philip'' s^ Birnn7i^ham, 

Fig. 6o. 


From the cartoon by Sir Edward Bnrne- Jones for a chancel window 
at St. Philip's^ Bii'minghaiii. 

Fig. 6i. 


From fhc ca7-(oon by Sir Ed-ward Burtie- Jones for a chancel whidozv 
ai St. Philip's^ Birviinghani. 





T)estgn ^^9 

interesting in themselves and develops the beauty of 
the material. In the Crucifixion, the dramatic treat- 
ment of the sea of heads behind the chief group of 
fip-ures the action and expression of these, and the 
vigorous modelling of the principal figure all illus- 
trate the same point. The artist has not thougfit it 
necessary to avoid perspective in the heads of the 
crowd, where the gradual diminution of scale con- 
veys the sense of distance to the mmd without any 
illusive realism 5 and even the severe symmetry of 
the angels' draperies, in the Nativity and Ascension, 
is not more striking than in the same painter's well- 
known picture of the Annunciation, or his beautiful 
design of the Adoration of the Kings for the tapestry 
now at Exeter College, Oxford. The cartoons, being 
without leads and bars, might possibly convey a 
misleading impression that the designs lean towards 
pictorial realism. A glance at the photograph from 
the oiass will correct any such mistake, and I must 
ask s^uch of my readers as have not seen the windows 
to accept my assurances that no such idea could enter 
the mind of any one who contemplates the glass. 
The work exhibits a perfect combination of two 
qualities sometimes supposed to be antagonistic. It 
addresses both the mind and the eye; the interest 
which the windows possess as presentations of subjects 
does not in the slightest degree detract from their 
splendour as stained glass, which, when designed for 
the eye only, is apt to degenerate into the pointless 
combinations of the kaleidoscope, or at best to the 
patterns of the Turkey carpet, charming for carpets, 
but wholly unworthy of monumental art. 

The situation and subjects of Mr. Richmond's 
windows in the clere-story at St. Paul's demanded 
a ditferent treatment. They represent Orders of 

[ 70 . Stained Glass as an oyTrt 

Angels ^, and standing as they do at a great height 
from the ground, a broad and simple composition 
was necessary. This has been given in a bold and 
dignified foliated design, in the convolutions of which 
the angels appear in symmetrical order. As it was 
important not to darken these windows, the glass is 
for the most part light, and Mr. Richmond has suc- 
ceeded in imparting to it a glittering brilliancy 
worthy of the best traditions of the old stained 
glass schools. 

I must again express my grateful thanks to the 
two artists for the use of illustrations, which so 
materially assist my efforts to promote a better 
understanding of ' Stamed Glass as an Art.' 

1 The following extract from a note from Mr. Richmond will 
add to the interest of these reproductions : — ' The clere-story 
windows in St. Paul's represent Angels who watch over labour. 
There is the Angel ploughman, sower, reaper, &c. Then the 
ornament represents the Oak, the Rose, the Vine, the Hop, the 
Ash, and the Olive. They are done with as little paint as possible, 
very much lead, and very thick glass. There are also Angels who 
carry the shields of the Virtues.' 

Fig. 63. 

» _ - • ' 

r-'«ffip«kjwi»ig<;y" - 


From a wmdow in St. Paitts Cathedral, designed by 
W. B. Richmond, R.A. 

Fig. 64. 

From a window in St. Paul's Cathedral, designed by 
W. B. Richmond, R.A. 



Accident in Art, 8, i6o. 
Angels, 34, 51, 63, 64., 66, 71, 
9+5 117, 1+1-14.6. 

anthropomorphic • treat- 
ment of, 141, 144. 

costume of, 141. ^ 

Bas-relief, analogies with glass, 

31, 8z. 
Bayeux tapestry, 124. 
Binding, z6. 
Blake, William, 145. 
Botticelli, Sandro, ii^, 15-7. 
Burne-Jones, Sir E., 44, 11^, 


Cambridge, King's Coll., 4.6. 
Canterbury Cathedral, 106. 
Cartoons, 2,0. 
Cementing, z6. 
Chapter-house, Salisbury, 142. 
Chartres Cathedral, 2C), 53, 35), 

703 7% 137, i+i- 
Chiar'oscuro, why objectionable 

in glass, 16, 77, 81, 88, 5)8. 

Cinque-cento, marks of deca- 
dence in, 4^, 100. 

Colour, splendour of, in glass, 

i?5 35-, 39- 
composition of, in glass, 

T73 ^93 9^- 

in representing natural ob- 

jects in glass, 92, ^4. 
Costume in stained glass, 130. 

Costume, accuracy of, how far 
desirable, 132. 

Egyptian, 133. 

of angels, 141. 

Cut-line drawing, 21. 

Decadence in stained glass, t), 
4f, 80. 

directly attributable to pic- 

torialism, 45', loo. 

Decoration, earliest form of art, 

Desecration of churches and other 

pubhc buildings by shop-art, 

107, no, 15:8. 
Diapers, 40. 
Division of labour, 1 1 o. 

Enamel colours, mark of poor 
style in stained glass, cj, 80. 

injurious in Opus sectile, 


Fairford Church, cjcj, 137. 
Florence, Duomo, 39, 128. 

Santa Maria Novella, 114. 

Foliated ornament, 1x2. 

Form, importance of, in glass, 

'>-9y 3r, 7<^, i<^o- 

excellence of, in thirteenth 

century, 30. 

perfectly imitable in glass. 

28, 3^, 76. 



Form, desirable limits to imita- 
tion of, 16. 

Giotto, G-i., 137, i^-j . 

Glass, colours of, 7, 20, 41, i %<). 

flashed, 7. 

'spoiled,' 8. 

Glass - painter, an executive 

artist, ai. 
Glazing, if. 
Gothic revival, 3, 103. 
Grisaille, 35-, 47, 118. 

Human ifigure in glass, \-i,G. 

Ideas, more expressible in deco- 
rative than pictorial art, 54., 

Iron-work, 10, x(), itj, 47, 45, 
TO, "f I • 

Lafarge, John, i^tj. 
Leads, 9, 22, 35), 16^0. 

attempt to dispense with, 


Leighton, Lord, 115-. 
Letters in stained glass, 88. 
Lichfield Cathedral, tjt). 
Limitations of decorative art full 

of suggestions to artists, (rs', 

Lines, thick, in old glass, 37. 

obliterated at a distance by 

strong light, 38, %G. 

Mantegna, Andrea, iif. 
Medievalism (see ' Sham "). 
Morris, WilHam, ii^^, \G%. 
Mosaic, 1(^4. 

Motive and Composition, 6^7, 74. 
Munich School of Stained Glass, 

Nature, effects ot, not imitable 
in stained glass, 13, 43 • nor 
desirable, ly. 

Opaque stained glass (Opus sec- 
tile), \G\. 
Orgagna, Andrea, 143. 
Oxford, Christ Church, lo^. 
New Coll., 75). 

Parthenon, Panathenaic frieze, 

Perspective, in stained glass, ^4, 

79, %G, 88,5,3,97. 

in bas-rehef, 83. 

Picture, executed in stained glass, 

Pigments, 10. 
Pisa, Campo Santo, 142. 

Duomo, II, If, 83. 

Plating, 41. 
Pot-metal, 9. 

Poynter, Sir Edward, iif, iG-j. 
Processes in glass summarized, 

Profit, inimical to art, 3, 105-, 


distinguished from pay, f. 

Propylsea, Athens, different styles 

in, 121. 

ReaUsm in stained glass, 78, 86'. 

in bas-rehef, 84. 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 80. 
Rhythm in art and poetry, 148. 

of motion, 15-0. 

Richmond, W. B., 44, iG%. 
Rouen, Church of St. Ouen, 58. 
Rules and principles in art, c,o, 

Santa Maria Novella (Florence), 

Shading, smear-, 23. 

matt-, 23, 38. 

■ stipple-, 23, 2f, 38. 

Sham medisevalism, 2, 4, 102. 

exclusively work of trades- 
men, 104, 114. 



Sham medievalism, matter of 

market and profit, lo^. 
• comicalities of!, 1 06. 

advertisements of, 10^. 

impossible to an artist, 4,, 

10,-, 113, 114.. 

Sham Strads, 108. 
Signorelli, Luca, 138, 15:7. 
Spencer, Herbert, ifo. 
Stain, yellow, 9, 24, 40, 75. 
Stonework of windows and 
stained glass, 4.^, ^5, 120. 

neglected in cinque-cento 

designs, 4.f. 

Stores, stained glass windows 
now obtainable at, 1 1 o. 

Subjects extending over two or 
more lights, 55. 

Symbolism, 14.3, 14.6', 154. 

and realism, 147. 

Technical arts, 12. 

present conditions 

Transparency, distinctive pro- 
perty of stained glass, ■^G, 75. 

to be specially preserved in 

deep colours, 38. 

Van Eyck, Johann, 143. 
Vatican, RaphaeFs arabesques, 

Venice, Ducal Palace, 128. 

Westminster Abbey, 105:. 
White glass, shading of, 3(). 
Windows, stained glass, at Cam- 
bridge, King's Coll., 46. 


Chartres, 25;, 33, 39, 70, 


favourable to, 3. 

law and prophets of, 3^. 

Texture in glass-painting, 39- 

41, 140. 
Theophilus on stained glass, 12. 
Tracery, 6^, 70. 
Trade and stained glass, 4, 103, 


197 137, i+i- 

Fairford Church, tjtj, 137. 

— Florence, Duomo, 35). 

— Florence, Santa Maria 
Novella, 115-. 

— Lichfield Cathedral, 95). 

— Oxford, Christ Church, 


Oxford, New Coll., 75). 
Pisa, Duomo, 11, if, 83. 
Rouen,Church of St.Ouen, 

Westminster Abbey, io<r. 
York Minster, 35', ^ 7. 





chm NK5304.H7X 
Stained glass as an art.